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Consumer Goods and Deforestation NEW!

Consumer Goods and Deforestation

An Analysis of the Extent and Nature of Illegality in Forest Conversion for Agriculture and Timber Plantations

Sam Lawson - Forest Trends - September 2014

In recent years, it has become apparent that the most significant threat to the world’s remaining forests is conversion for commercial agriculture and other non-forest use. Agriculture alone accounts for over 70 percent of all deforestation across tropical and sub-tropical countries, along with other smaller drivers, such as mining, infrastructure, urban expansion, and remaining activities (Hosonuma et al. 2012)—all in response to...

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Agriculture and Forest Commodities NEW!

Agriculture and Forest Commodities

From Drivers of Deforestation to Sustainability Champions

Sarah Lowery - Forest Trends - September 2014

Large consumer-facing companies, agricultural producers, NGOs and even governments are intent on reducing deforestation from commodity production and making supply chains more environmentally sustainable. To identify cutting-edge solutions – and to build and strengthen the partnerships that will be key to implementation – Forest Trends convened Katoomba XIX – Scaling up Sustainable Supply Chains in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (March 2014)....

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Gaining Depth NEW!

Gaining Depth

State of Watershed Investment 2014 - Executive Summary

Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll - Ecosystem Marketplace - September 2014

Last year, governments and companies invested $9.6 billion (B) in initiatives implementing nature-based solutions to sustain the world’s clean water supplies. According to a new report from Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace, this funding – which supports healthy watersheds that naturally filter water, absorb storm surge, and perform other critical functions – flowed to more than seven million households and restored and protected a...

VIETNAM: Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

VIETNAM: Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

Nguyen thi Xuan Huong, Dang Viet Quang - July 2014

Forest cover in Vietnam is estimated at 13.8 million hectares—a number which has increased significantly since the 1990s, due to a recent surge in reforestation efforts leading to increases in plantation forest. Despite this, extensive deforestation and degradation remain, particularly along the Central Highlands and Central Coast, and within the south of the country. Therefore, the government of Vietnam is currently working to lower...

Forest Conversion in Lao PDR: Implications and Impacts of Expanding Land Investments

Forest Conversion in Lao PDR: Implications and Impacts of Expanding Land Investments

This policy brief examines the institutional and legal framework surrounding forest conversion in Lao PDR, giving special consideration to the social, environmental, and legal implications of expanding land investments to meet Lao PDR’s economic development goals summarized in the National Export Strategy (2011-2015)....

Rubber Expansion and Forest Protection in Vietnam

Rubber Expansion and Forest Protection in Vietnam

Phuc Xuan To, Huu Tran Nghi - Forest Trends - July 2014

This report provides in-depth analyses of the impacts of the expansion of rubber plantations in Vietnam, particularly in the Central Highland and Northwest Regions, which have experienced the most rapid rubber expansion in terms of area. The report also highlights the impacts of rubber plantation development on forest resources, household livelihoods, and local communities, as well as other socioeconomic and cultural impacts in areas...

Giao đất giao rừng trong bối cảnh tái cơ cấu  ngành lâm nghiệp: Cơ hội phát triển rừng  và cải thiện sinh kế vùng cao

Giao đất giao rừng trong bối cảnh tái cơ cấu ngành lâm nghiệp: Cơ hội phát triển rừng và cải thiện sinh kế vùng cao

Tô Xuân Phúc - Trần Hữu Nghị - June 2014

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Indonesia: Illegalities in Forest Clearance in Large-Scale Plantations

Indonesia: Illegalities in Forest Clearance in Large-Scale Plantations

Eric Wakker - Aidenvironment Asia - June 2014

This is the second in a series of case studies examining the nature, scale and extent of illegalities and irregularities in the process of forest clearance for large-scale agricultural estates and ranchlands, and the scale of the trade in commodities grown or reared on land illegally cleared of forests. Each country assessment examines the state of knowledge on the topic, and the recent history of relevant sectoral activity in each...

COLOMBIA: Seguimiento a la Financiación de REDD+ 2009-2012

COLOMBIA: Seguimiento a la Financiación de REDD+ 2009-2012

Roberto Gómez, Michelle Hernández, Iván Darío Valencia, Rubén Darío Guerrero - June 2014

Colombia es uno de los países con mayor biodiversidad en el mundo, donde el 53% de su territorio se encuentra cubierto por bosques tropicales, los cuales constituyen un 6.42% de la oferta total de cobertura boscosa tropical para Suramérica tropical y el 1.5% de los bosques del mundo. Sin embargo, las diferentes dinámicas de desarrollo poblacional y de tenencia de la tierra han originado un sinnúmero de procesos de transformación,...

MÉXICO: Seguimiento del Financiamiento para REDD+ 2009-2012

MÉXICO: Seguimiento del Financiamiento para REDD+ 2009-2012

Carlos Muñoz Piña, Jimena Ortega Flores - June 2014

México cuenta con 64.8 millones de hectáreas de bosques y selvas, aproximadamente un tercio de la superficie total del país.En México, REDD+ es sinónimo de desarrollo rural sustentable, un enfoque que permite alinear los incentivos del sector forestal con los de otros sectores que inciden en el mismo territorio (e.g. agropecuario, turismo).Actualmente, la Estrategia Nacional REDD+ (ENAREDD+) se sometea revisión y consulta durante 2014....

Sharing the Stage

Sharing the Stage

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2014 - Executive Summary

Molly Peters-Stanley, Gloria Gonzalez - Ecosystem Marketplace - May 2014

In a bid to reduce their impact on greenhouse gas emissions, corporate leaders like Chevrolet, Marks & Spencer, and Allianz continued to voluntarily purchase carbon offsets in 2013, locking 76 million metric tonnes of greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere. According to the annual State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets report, previewed by Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace this week in Cologne, Germany, these and other diverse...

Forest Products Trade between China and Africa

Forest Products Trade between China and Africa

An Analysis of Import and Export Statistics

Xiufang Sun - April 2014

China's efforts to secure access to natural resources in Africa suggest that timber has already become an important traded commodity between China and the African continent. Many hold a general impression that Africa exports a significant and growing amount of timber to China. However, the true magnitude of the China-Africa forest product trade and its trends over time has been poorly documented to date. Greater insight into the...

Analysis of Russian Roundwood Act

Analysis of Russian Roundwood Act

In December 2013 Russia amended its federal Forest Code. This policy brief describes the scope and requirements of the Act and analyzes implications for processors and importers of Russian timber, giving special consideration to the law’s potential to minimize risk as part of a due diligence system....

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Building Blue Carbon Projects:

Building Blue Carbon Projects:

An Introductory Guide

Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative (AGEDI) - April 2014

Blue carbon projects can work, by using the value of carbon stored and sequestered in coastal and marine ecosystems to support conservation and sustainable management, a new report shows. The report, published by Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative (AGEDI), aims to stimulate discussion regarding projects that support the conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems based on a Blue Carbon approach. It serves as a...

PREVIEW: Social Networks of Corruption in the Vietnamese and Lao Cross-Border Timber Trade

PREVIEW: Social Networks of Corruption in the Vietnamese and Lao Cross-Border Timber Trade

Phuc Xuan To, Wolfram Dressler - Sango Mahanty - March 2014

Although corruption is a core issue in discourses on Southeast Asian states and the region’s illegal timber trade, its specific meanings, characteristics, and role are poorly understood. This ethnographic study of corruption and timber trade in the lower Mekong uncovers the relationships, dealings, and networks that enable illegal timber flows. Examination of the actors involved and their efforts to obtain the release of the timber...

FLEGT VPA and REDD+ and community tenure rights in Honduras

FLEGT VPA and REDD+ and community tenure rights in Honduras

Filippo Del Gatto - Benno Pokorny - March 2014

A community forestry case study from Honduras, the first Latin American country to be simultaneously involved in FLEGT VPA and REDD+ processes, provides evidence that community forestry can significantly contribute to their common aims. That being so, both initiatives should focus on policies that support forest communities, in particular those that strengthen and clarify these communities’ rights to land and resources....

Conflicts in Vietnam's Forest Areas: Implications for FLEGT and REDD+

Conflicts in Vietnam's Forest Areas: Implications for FLEGT and REDD+

ETFRN News 55: March 2014

Phuc Xuan To, Thomas Sikor - Forest Trends, University of East Anglia - March 2014

Conflicts over land are rampant in Vietnam. Land conflicts are the subject of more than 70% of the written complaints received by Vietnamese government offices in recent years and could undermine Vietnam’s initiatives on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+). However, these initiatives also present an opportunity to resolve conflicts, since they...

Environmental Aspects of China's Papermaking Fiber Supply - Update

Environmental Aspects of China's Papermaking Fiber Supply - Update

Jeremy Williams - ArborVitae Environmental Services Ltd. - March 2014

In 2007, Forest Trends commissioned Brian Stafford of Brian Stafford & Associates Pty Ltd to provide an analysis of China’s paper making industry’s fiber supply. At that time, China accounted for over 50 percent of the world’s overall growth in paper and paperboard production. It was deemed important to understand the structure of all of China’s papermaking inputs: virgin pulp, pulpwood, and wastepaper -- both domestic and imported –...

Jurisdictional REDD+ Bonds: Leveraging Private Finance for Forest Protection, Development, and Sustainable Agriculture Supply Chains

Jurisdictional REDD+ Bonds: Leveraging Private Finance for Forest Protection, Development, and Sustainable Agriculture Supply Chains

REDD+ finance is designed to conserve and enhance forests across the developing world, but it needs a jump-start of its own – especially at the national and sub-national levels. Jurisdictional REDD+ Bonds could be part of the solution. Many jurisdictions (municipalities, departments, states, countries) have reduced their rates of deforestation and are making progress on REDD+ programs that monitor, report, and verify their emissions...

Bridging Financing Gaps

Bridging Financing Gaps

Sarah Lowery, David Tepper, Rupert Edwards - March 2014

The amount of capital deployed through REDD+ is just a small percentage of what is needed. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation by 50 percent will require between $17 and $33 billion per year, but only $4.5 billion was deployed for REDD+ was through 2012. And forest carbon markets’ value was estimated at USD 216 million in 2012. In contrast, financial flows to the agriculture sector are quite large: average...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Chinese Overseas Investment in Forestry and Industries with High Impact on Forests

Chinese Overseas Investment in Forestry and Industries with High Impact on Forests

Official Guidelines and Credit Policies for Chinese Enterprises Operating and Investing Abroad

Duncan Brack - March 2014

This paper examines the evolving framework for outward FDI in relation to legal compliance and responsible implementation of overseas investment projects affecting forestry and forest areas....

Serie de carbono forestal a inicios del 2014

Serie de carbono forestal a inicios del 2014

Implicacioes y oportunidades para America Latina

This issue of our Insights Series/Acercamientos was produced by ValorandoNaturaleza.org, the Spanish-language sister site of Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace, for a February 2014 event in Bogotá, Colombia that focuses on results from COP19 and the state of economic incentives for ecosystem services. Part 1 present the current state of forest carbon finance based on the State of the Forest Carbon Market Report 2013; Part 2...

Lessons Learned from Civil Society Efforts to Promote Community (Forest) Resource Rights and other Rights in Voluntary Partnership Agreements

Lessons Learned from Civil Society Efforts to Promote Community (Forest) Resource Rights and other Rights in Voluntary Partnership Agreements

Lindsay Duffield, Michael Richards - Forest Trends - January 2014

The 2003 European Union (EU) Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan represents an attempt to link forest governance reforms in timber producing countries with market incentives for legally produced timber. Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) are bilateral trade agreements signed between the EU and a timber producing country, and are a key element of the FLEGT Action Plan. Each VPA has been drafted to...

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ECUADOR Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

ECUADOR Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

Jacob Olander, Isabel Carrera - January 2014

Forest Trends REDDX initiative works with in-country civil society partners and national governments to track REDD+ finance and present a national REDD+ financing picture. This report details findings, national context, and analysis for Ecuador: The Republic of Ecuador is home to some of the most biologically diverse tropical forest ecosystems in the world and has approximately 10 million hectares of native forest remaining. These...

LIBERIA Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

LIBERIA Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

Forest Trends REDDX initiative works with in-country civil society partners and national governments to track REDD+ finance and present a national REDD+ financing picture. This report details findings, national context, and analysis for Liberia: Liberia contains 4.3 million hectares of lowland tropical forest; however, these forests are under threat from the encroachment of agriculture and mining activities, and illegal and...

Understanding and Defining Climate-Smart Cocoa

Understanding and Defining Climate-Smart Cocoa

Extension, Inputs, Yields, and Farming Practices

Rebecca Ashley Asare, Nature Conservation Research Centre - Forest Trends - December 2013

Ghana has identified its extensive cocoa cultivation as a major driver of deforestation and forest degradation. The Ghana Cocoa Board is committed to making Ghana “the number one best quality producer of cocoa in the world,” improving sustainability through a Climate-Smart Cocoa (CSC) approach that includes mitigation, increases in yield, and economic development that centers on land-use planning. This report represents the first time...

ETHIOPIA Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

ETHIOPIA Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

Forest Trends - December 2013

Ethiopia's natural resources are the foundation of Ethiopian economic development, ensuring food security and providing basic necessities to its growing population. Over the past three decades, however, Ethiopia has lost a significant amount forest cover due to deforestation. With expansion of agriculture, settlements, and wild fires, the rate of deforestation remains quite high. Although REDD+ institutional arrangements are still in...

GHANA Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

GHANA Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

Rebecca Ashley Asare, Martin Yelibora, Roselyn Adjei, Hilma Manan - December 2013

Ghana is home to approximately 4,940,000 hectares of bio-diverse, carbon-rich forest. However, Ghana’s forested lands are increasingly experiencing pressure from agriculture and mining sectors, fuel wood and charcoal production, and urban expansion. The Ghanaian national government entered the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility in 2009, with the hopes of minimizing deforestation while also promoting sustainable long-term development....

TANZANIA  Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

TANZANIA Mapping REDD+ Finance Flows 2009-2012

Erneus Kaijage, Zainab Kuhanwa - December 2013

Forest Trends REDDX initiative works with in-country civil society partners and national governments to track REDD+ finance and present a national REDD+ financing picture. This report details findings, national context, and analysis for Tanzania: Tanzania hosts over 33 million hectares of forests with diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity. These forests are under threat from subsistence agriculture, increasing energy needs,...

Malaysia: Illegalities in Forest Clearance for Large-Scale Commercial Plantations

Malaysia: Illegalities in Forest Clearance for Large-Scale Commercial Plantations

Lim Teck Wyn - December 2013

This study focuses on large-scale commercial oil palm plantations, rubber plantations, timber plantations and pulpwood plantations but not small-scale subsistence agriculture. It reviews secondary sources, including published laws and regulations, government figures, company reports, NGO reports and newspaper reports. Additional information includes personal communication and correspondence with relevant persons, including government...

Treatment of Conversion Timber in Consumer-Country Measures

Treatment of Conversion Timber in Consumer-Country Measures

Duncan Brack - December 2013

Over the last decade, governments in timber-producing and timber-consuming countries have implemented a range of policies and measures aimed at improving forest governance and reducing illegal logging. Although these have had some impact, illegal logging clearly remains a significant problem. “Conversion timber” deriving from natural forests converted to commercial concessions is the predominant source of timber in many countries;...

Identifying Illegality in Timber from Forest Conversion

Identifying Illegality in Timber from Forest Conversion

A Review of Legality Definitions

Daphne Hewitt - December 2013

FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) aim to verify and license legal timber for export to the EU in order to create a ‘market access’ incentive for legal operators and countries that wish to improve forest law enforcement and governance standards. Licensing is based on a Legality Assurance System (LAS), which is underpinned by a national Legality Definition. Beginning a credible domestic stakeholder process to identify...

Tackling Timber Regulations

Tackling Timber Regulations

A Guide for Myanmar

Over the past decade, several major timber product consumer countries have put into place new regulations aimed at curtailing the import of illegally sourced wood products. The United States pioneered this development by passing an amendment to the Lacey act in 2008. This move was followed by the EU, which approved the EU Timber Regulation 2010. Subsequently, the Australian Illegal Logging Prohibition Act was made official in November...

Tropical Hardwood Flows in China

Tropical Hardwood Flows in China

Case Studies of Rosewood and Okoumé

Huang Wenbin, Sun Xiufang - December 2013

Through two commodity chain case studies, this report describes and analyzes the complex tropical log product flows inside China. Two categories of tropical wood were selected: okoumé (Aucoumea klaineana), which mainly derives from Africa, and rosewood (or padauk as it is recorded in Chinese customs data), which derives from Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America. In the last 10 years, these two categories have accounted for an...

Potential Legality Issues from Forest Conversion Timber

Potential Legality Issues from Forest Conversion Timber

Daphne Hewitt - December 2013

This paper investigates whether there is evidence that timber generated during the conversion of natural forest areas to non-forest or plantation use in tropical and sub-tropical timber-producing countries could be a significant source of illegal timber entering markets. It asks two related questions: How important a timber source is forest conversion? And what are the sources of potential illegality associated with timber from forest...

The Socio-Economic Context of Illegal Logging and Trade of Rosewood Along the Cambodian-Lao Border

The Socio-Economic Context of Illegal Logging and Trade of Rosewood Along the Cambodian-Lao Border

Dr. Sarinda Singh - November 2013

Siamese Rovsewood (Dalbergia cochinensis) has recently been listed on Appendix II of The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). This listing means that source countries are legally required to export only controlled quantities of rosewood with close monitoring and documentation, which is intended to ensure that the international trade is not detrimental to the survival of this species. This briefing note...

Timber Trade Flows and Actors in Myanmar

Timber Trade Flows and Actors in Myanmar

The Political Economy of Myanmar’s Timber Trade

Kevin Woods - November 2013

This report on Myanmar's political economy of timber trade highlights five different sources and flows of timber destined for export. The purpose is to bring to light the different actors, geographies, and politics embedded within the web of timber flows because each inter-connected stream has its own degree of legality, sustainability, land rights regimes, and ethical sourcing. To date, much of the dialogue on the sourcing of Myanmar...

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Covering New Ground State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2013: Full Report

Covering New Ground State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2013: Full Report

Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - November 2013

In its fourth year of publication, the State of the Forest Carbon Markets report series offers an un-paralleled, comprehensive view of the financial and technical landscape of the market for forest carbon offsets. Covering New Ground: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2013, produced and launched by Forest Trendsʼ Ecosystem Marketplace, offers the latest findings on forest carbon projectsʼ structure, standards,...

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Covering New Ground State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2013:Executive Summary

Covering New Ground State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2013:Executive Summary

Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - November 2013
Investments in Watershed Services for the Jequetepeque Watershed in Northwestern Peru, Departments of Cajamarca and La Libertad

Investments in Watershed Services for the Jequetepeque Watershed in Northwestern Peru, Departments of Cajamarca and La Libertad

Peru Investments in Watershed Services Series

Recognizing the need to provide national leadership, capacity-building, and coordination to the many local and regional mechanisms facilitating investments in ecosystem services throughout Peru, the Ministry of Environment of Peru (MINAM) partnered with Forest Trends to establish the Peru Ecosystem Services Incubator in 2012. The Incubator aims to enhance investments in nature by society through providing technical, financial, and...

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Investments in Watershed Services for the Rimac Watershed, Department of Lima, Peru

Investments in Watershed Services for the Rimac Watershed, Department of Lima, Peru

Peru Investments in Watershed Services Series

Recognizing the need to provide national leadership, capacity-building, and coordination to the many local and regional mechanisms facilitating investments in ecosystem services throughout Peru, the Ministry of Environment of Peru (MINAM) partnered with Forest Trends to establish the Peru Ecosystem Services Incubator in 2012. The Incubator aims to enhance investments in nature by society through providing technical, financial, and...

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Investments in Watershed Services for Moyobamba on Subwatersheds of the Alto Mayo, Department of San Martín, Peru

Investments in Watershed Services for Moyobamba on Subwatersheds of the Alto Mayo, Department of San Martín, Peru

Peru Investments in Watershed Services Series

Recognizing the need to provide national leadership, capacity-building, and coordination to the many local and regional mechanisms facilitating investments in ecosystem services throughout Peru, the Ministry of Environment of Peru (MINAM) partnered with Forest Trends to establish the Peru Ecosystem Services Incubator in 2012. The Incubator aims to enhance investments in nature by society through providing technical, financial, and...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Investments in Watershed Services for the Cañete Watershed, Department of Lima, Peru

Investments in Watershed Services for the Cañete Watershed, Department of Lima, Peru

Peru Investments in Watershed Services Series

Recognizing the need to provide national leadership, capacity-building, and coordination to the many local and regional mechanisms facilitating investments in ecosystem services throughout Peru, the Ministry of Environment of Peru (MINAM) partnered with Forest Trends to establish the Peru Ecosystem Services Incubator in 2012. The Incubator aims to enhance investments in nature by society through providing technical, financial, and...

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2012 Results Report: Sharing Progress on the Path to Adoption of Clean Cooking Solutions (Full Report)

2012 Results Report: Sharing Progress on the Path to Adoption of Clean Cooking Solutions (Full Report)

Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - September 2013

The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (Alliance) was launched in 2010 with a goal to drive the adoption of clean cookstoves and fuels in 100 million households by 2020. In pursuit of this objective, the combined efforts reported by a wide range of Alliance partners working on different aspects of the issue are having positive impacts on public health, women’s empowerment, improved livelihoods, re- duced environmental degradation,...

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Ending Global Deforestation

Ending Global Deforestation

Policy Options for Consumer Countries

Duncan Brack, Rob Bailey - September 2013

Legal as well as illegal land clearance for agriculture is significant global driver of deforestation. Consumers and retailers are not able to identify the differences between imports of legal, illegal or unsustainable agricultural commodities produced on these lands. Efforts to tackle illegal logging and improve forest governance over the past ten years have included measures aimed at excluding illegal timber from consumer-country...

Workshop Information and Agenda: Conversion of Forestlands to Rubber Plantations

Workshop Information and Agenda: Conversion of Forestlands to Rubber Plantations

Opportunities and Challenges

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The VPA in Honduras

The VPA in Honduras

An Opportunity to Take Forward the Forestry Reform Started with the 2007 Forestry Law

This Information Brief revises and updates a previous version of the same article that was published in February 2013. With the aim of supporting civil society engagement in the VPA process in Honduras, the brief describes some of the key forest governance challenges that the country faces as well as some emerging priorities of local stakeholder groups....

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Initial Recommendations for the Social Impact Assessment (SIA) in Investments in Watershed Services Programs

Initial Recommendations for the Social Impact Assessment (SIA) in Investments in Watershed Services Programs

Michael Richards, Tuyeni Mwampamba - Forest Trends - September 2013

The main objective of this paper is to provide recommendations on the social impact assessment (SIA) of investments for watershed services (IWS) projects or programs. The paper draws on an extensive literature on the theory and practice of SIA, on the authors’ experiences of applying SIA in other natural resource contexts, and on discussions from a workshop with IWS program practitioners. It can be regarded as an introductory primer on...

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Community Forestry in Honduras: A Path towards Better Governance

Community Forestry in Honduras: A Path towards Better Governance

Forest Trends Information Brief No. 8

Filippo Del Gatto - Forest Trends - September 2013

With the aim of better informing policy discussions about community forestry in Honduras, such as those that will be held in the context of the proposed Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA), this Information Brief explores the links between community forestry and local forest governance in the country. It provides evidence that community-based forest enterprises can contribute significantly to forest governance goals, and it argues...

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Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - June 2013

Voluntary demand for carbon offsetting grew 4% in 2012, when buyers committed more than $523 million to offset 101 million metric tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions. Private sector buyers flocked to offsets earned by planting trees, saving tropical forests, or distributing clean cookstoves in the developing world, according to this year’s State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets report, released by Forest Trends’

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Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013 - Executive Summary

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013 - Executive Summary

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - May 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Annexes

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Chapter 1: Market Overview

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Chapter 2: Offset Origins

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Chapter 3: Market Infrastructure

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Chapter 4: Details of the Deals

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Chapter 5: Regional Market Deep Dive

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Chapter 6: Projections

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013

Maneuvering the Mosaic: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013: Graphs from the Report

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Maniobrando el Mosaico

Maniobrando el Mosaico: El Estado de los Mercados Volunarios de Carbono 2013 - Resumen Ejecutivo

Molly Peters-Stanley, Daphne Yin - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - July 2013
Recommendations from Katoomba China - Global

Recommendations from Katoomba China - Global

Policymakers, natural resource managers, researchers, and expert practitioners from 13 Chinese provinces and 15 countries recently convened at Katoomba XVIII: Forests, Water, and People in Beijing to advance investments in natural infrastructure for water security in an urbanizing world. The setting reflected China’s global leadership in eco-compensation as well as regional opportunities to improve the efficiency and effectiveness

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Ghana's REDD+ Registry

Ghana's REDD+ Registry

Pathways to Development

Rebecca Ashley Asare, Yaw Kwakye, Ernest Foli - Forest Trends, Ghana Forestry Commission, Forestry Research Institute of Ghana - April 2013

The emerging mechanism of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) presents opportunities for developing countries to contribute to climate change mitigation and benefit from associated financial flows. Ghana has been an active participant in this international process aimed at mitigating climate change, which poses a major threat to humankind on a global scale. In the quest to contribute to the realization...

Combating Illegal Logging in Asia

Combating Illegal Logging in Asia

A Review of Progress and the Role of the Asia Forest Partnership 2002-2012

Robert B. Oberndorf - Forest Trends - April 2013

Forests in Asia play a critical role in providing a variety of services that millions of people depend upon for their livelihoods and social stability. They also contain most of the Asia-Pacific region’s terrestrial biodiversity. By the turn of the Millennium, the forests of the region, particularly in the tropics, were acknowledged to be in crisis.Deforestation and forest degradation were rising to unprecedented rates, often as a...

Climate-Smart Cocoa in Ghana

Climate-Smart Cocoa in Ghana

Achievements and a way forward

Cocoa is a $1.5 billion industry in Ghana.Ghana’s cocoa authority and regulatory body, Cocobod, aims to make Ghana, “the number one best quality producer of cocoa in the world”. This strategy, according to the government, necessitates cocoa becoming, “a sustainable product in a way that takes good care of the environment and also gives the farmer the best of income for what he produces, and also satisfy the requirement of the...

Forest Trends Workshop Summary: Vietnamese Wood Villages in Changing Timber Markets

Forest Trends Workshop Summary: Vietnamese Wood Villages in Changing Timber Markets

Forest Trends and the Dong Ky Wood Carving Association held three workshops about “Vietnamese Wood Villages in Changing Timber Markets” to present informatin about of new timber legality requirements in international markets. This document includes information about these workshops as well as the recommendations coming out of it....

Patrones y factores de deforestación en el Ecuador continental, 1990-2010

Patrones y factores de deforestación en el Ecuador continental, 1990-2010

Y un acercamiento a los próximos 10 años

Rodrigo Sierra - March 2013

This document analyzes the shifting historical trends in deforestation drivers and agents and provides a model projecting deforestation trends to 2020. The publication points to continuing changes in land-use patterns as Ecuador slowly moves towards a “forest transition.” Increasing urbanization, demographic shifts, consolidation of infrastructure and intensification agricultural production are contributing to a decline in overall...

Small-Scale Illegal Logging in Vietnam

Small-Scale Illegal Logging in Vietnam

Implications for FLEGT and REDD+

This brief summarizes village case studies that demonstrate how Vietnam’s domestic illegal logging will only be curtailed if Vietnamese policies promote forest governance that accommodates small-scale forest use and management, and allows local communities to benefit from the forest. Effective strategies to curb illegal logging will require the allocation of clear and secure tenure rights to local people in order to improve their...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Advanced REDD+ Finance

Advanced REDD+ Finance

Leveraging public finance to attract private sector dollars to REDD+ and related activities

David Tepper, Sarah Lowery - Forest Trends - January 2013

The amount of REDD+ financing committed by the public and private sectors is substantially less than the amount of finance needed to decrease deforestation and degradation in the next decade. To attract financing to REDD+ and related activities such as climate smart, zero deforestation agriculture, we have the opportunity to create innovative and integrated financial architecture to minimize risks for the private sector and tap into...

To No Net Loss and Beyond

To No Net Loss and Beyond

An Overview of the Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP)

BBOP - January 2013

This updated Overview document with its Principles on Biodiversity Offsets, introduction to the Standard on Biodiversity Offsets, and the accompanying supporting materials have been prepared by the Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP). Its aim is to help developers, conservation groups, communities, governments and financial institutions wishing to consider and develop best practice related to achieving no net loss of...

European Trade Flows and Risk

European Trade Flows and Risk

Rupert Oliver, Kerstin Canby - Forest Industries Intelligence Limited, Forest Trends - January 2013

Illegal logging, as defined in the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR), is the harvesting of timber in contravention of the laws and regulations of the country of harvest. Illegal logging is a global epidemic with significant negative economic, environmental and social impacts. Recent studies indicate that illegal logging accounts for 50–90 percent of the volume of all timber production in key producer tropical countries in the Amazon Basin,...

Charting New Waters

Charting New Waters

State of Watershed Payments 2012

Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll, Katherine Hamilton - January 2013

State of Watershed Payments 2012 is the second installment of the most comprehensive inventory to date of initiatives around the world that are paying individuals and communities to revive or preserve water-friendly features of the landscape. The number of initiatives that protect and restore forests, wetlands, and other water-rich ecosystems has nearly doubled in just four years while total investments topped $8.2 billion, according...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Trazando las Nuevas Aguas

Trazando las Nuevas Aguas: Estado Global de las Inversiones en Protección Hídrica

Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll, Katherine Hamilton - Ecosystem Marketplace - January 2013
2012年流域服务支付状况

2012年流域服务支付状况: 勾画水资源新蓝图 - 执行摘要 (Charting New Waters - Exec Summ in Chinese)

Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll, Katherine Hamilton - Ecosystem Marketplace - January 2013
Executive Summary: Charting New Waters

Executive Summary: Charting New Waters: State of Watershed Payments 2012

Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll, Katherine Hamilton - January 2013
State of Watershed Payments Report (Executive Summary for Business)

State of Watershed Payments Report (Executive Summary for Business)

Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll - Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace - January 2014
The Lao-Viet Timber Trade

The Lao-Viet Timber Trade

Current Practices and Strategies to Promote Sustainability

This article summarizes results of a workshop on the Lao-Viet timber trade held in December 2012 and hosted by the Quang Tri Peoples’ Committee, the Vietnam Timber and Forest Products Association (VIFORES) and Forest Trends....

Legal Review of Recently Enacted Farmland Law and Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law

Legal Review of Recently Enacted Farmland Law and Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law

Improving the Legal & Policy Frameworks Relating to Land Management in Myanmar

Robert B. Oberndorf - Forest Trends - December 2012

In order to inform Myanmar’s first multi-stakeholder national dialogue workshop on land tenure and user rights (held November 24th & 25th, 2012), Forest Trend’s Senior Law & Policy Advisor Rob Oberndorf was asked to conduct an in-depth analysis of recently enacted land legislation in the country, and suggest ways in which the legal frameworks relating to rural land management could be improved. This report is the result of that...

Village-Based Wood Products Manufacturing in Vietnam: Implications for FLEGT and REDD+ Implementation

Village-Based Wood Products Manufacturing in Vietnam: Implications for FLEGT and REDD+ Implementation

Forest Trends Information Brief No. 5

Phuc Xuan To, Dang Viet Quang - Forest Trends - December 2012

This short article summarizes the discussions of a workshop focusing on the structure of Vietnam’s village-based wood products manufacturing sector, and their potential role in FLEGT or REDD+ implementation. The workshop was held in October 2012 and was co-hosted by the Vietnam Timber and Forest Products Association (VIFORES) and Forest Trends. ...

Experiencias en Compensación por Servicios Ambientales en América Latina

Experiencias en Compensación por Servicios Ambientales en América Latina

Descripción de casos relevantes

Sebastian Charchalac Santay - November 2012

...

Leveraging the Landscape

Leveraging the Landscape

State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2012

Molly Peters-Stanley, Katherine Hamilton, Daphne Yin - Ecosystem Marketplace - November 2012

The report, which aggregates data from 415 individual forest carbon projects historically, was published Thursday by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace, a world-leading provider of news, data and analytics on environmental markets and investments in conservation. The report examines a variety of strategies for injecting financial resources into projects that save or plant forests that capture carbon. Carbon offsets from these...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Executive Summary: Leveraging the Landscape

Executive Summary: Leveraging the Landscape: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2012

Molly Peters-Stanley, Katherine Hamilton, Daphne Yin - Ecosystem Marketplace - November 2012
Poverty Impact Assessment for Reducing Social Risks and Enhancing Pro-Poor Outcomes of Voluntary Partnership Agreements

Poverty Impact Assessment for Reducing Social Risks and Enhancing Pro-Poor Outcomes of Voluntary Partnership Agreements

Forest Trends Information Brief No. 4

Michael Richards - Forest Trends - October 2012

This Information Brief describes the role of poverty impact assessment in the context of Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) between tropical timber-producing countries and the European Union. Ex ante poverty impact assessment can be a powerful tool for design, monitoring and adaptive management of a VPA. This Brief describes a possible approach to poverty impact assessment which will be field tested by Forest Trends....

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Managing Water

Managing Water

Potential Contributions of Investments in Watershed Services and Linkages to Poverty Reduction

We are facing a growing number, and increasing range, of water issues. As with climate change, when it comes to water, we are on an inevitable collision course with global disaster. So what is the answer? One suite of tools that, in certain situations, could help to address water problems are watershed payments. Watershed payments provide financial or in-kind incentives to land managers and land stewards to adopt practices that can...

The Opportunity for Agriculture

The Opportunity for Agriculture

Becoming Climate-Smart and Sequestering Carbon

The future of agricultural productivity is intertwined with climate change. Agriculture is a significant contributor to GHG emissions (10-12% of all emissions); at the same time, many agricultural areas are facing changes in mean temperature, precipitation, and increasing climate variability, all of which may impact their harvests. As a result, it will be essential for farmers to adopt climate-smart practices that can increase...

Is Equitable REDD+ Possible?

Is Equitable REDD+ Possible?

The Role of Social Safeguards, Standards, and Impact Assessment in Reducing Risks and Enhancing Outcomes

Michael Richards - Forest Trends - October 2012

The main focus in the early years of terrestrial carbon markets has been on assuring the environmental integrity of carbon offsets, while social and biodiversity objectives – the so-called ‘co-benefits’ – have received much less attention. But with the mainstreaming of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) as a climate change mitigation strategy, scrutiny of the co-benefits, especially around the risk of...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

A New Approach to Forging Public-Private Alliances around Sustainable Land Management

A New Approach to Forging Public-Private Alliances around Sustainable Land Management

Today, we face twin challenges of maximizing the effectiveness of publicly funded sustainable land management and identifying incentives to attract private capital to these investments. To do so, there is a need to transform land-use policy objectives into larger-scale sustainable land management and environmental investments. Given the scale of the challenge, we need to move beyond business-as-usual and find innovative ways to...

Participatory Social Impact Assessment for Natural Resource Projects and Programs

Participatory Social Impact Assessment for Natural Resource Projects and Programs

Michael Richards - Forest Trends - October 2012

There is a growing realization that good practice Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is an issue of self-interest; it can strengthen social sustainability, reduce investor risks and transaction costs, inform adaptive management, and build stakeholder ownership when undertaken in a participatory way. Participatory SIA is also compatible with a rights-based approach to development, especially free prior and informed consent (FPIC), which is...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

REDD+ in Vietnam

REDD+ in Vietnam

Integrating National and Subnational Approaches

Phuc Xuan To, Robert O'Sullivan, Jacob Olander, Slayde Hawkins, Pham Quoc Hung, Noriyoshi Kitamura - Forest Trends, Climate Focus - September 2012

The international REDD+ community is still struggling with the question how a future REDD+ mechanism may be implemented in practice, both internationally under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and domestically within countries. There is a general consensus that emission reductions and removals must ultimately be accounted for at the national level. The “Nested” REDD+ approach has been discussed widely...

Forest Certification in Myanmar

Forest Certification in Myanmar

Forest Trends Information Brief No. 3

Kerstin Canby - Forest Trends - September 2012

The easing of diplomatic and financial sanctions on Myanmar has sparked western interest in investment and trade opportunities. Interest in the export of world famous “Burmese teak” has led buyers from the United States, Europe, Japan, and Australia to ask questions about whether logs or timber exported out of Myanmar are legal or sustainable, as well as what the prospects are that they can be verified as legal or certified sustainable...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Thailand

Thailand

Overview of Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade

Kevin Woods, Keith Barney, Kerstin Canby - University of California, Berkeley, York University, Forest Trends - June 2012

Thailand diverges from neighboring regional Mekong countries, with a decade or more experience of actively pursuing policies to combat domestic illegal logging and internal transportation. The 1989 logging ban, and the rise of grassroots social movements organizing around large-scale plantations and community displacement, has meant that Thai forestry institutions have needed to become more responsive to environmental and social...

Forest Certification in Vietnam

Forest Certification in Vietnam

Forest Trends Information Brief No. 2

This article summarizes a March 2012 workshop held in Vietnam. According to Vietnam’s National Forest Development Strategy, by 2020, about 30% of Vietnam production forests – equivalent to around 1.8 million ha – is expected to meet criteria of sustainable forest management and to be qualified for certification. To achieve this objective, models of sustainable forest management have been piloted in some provinces. To date, however,...

Developing Dimension

Developing Dimension

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2012

Molly Peters-Stanley, Katherine E. Hamilton - Ecosystem Marketplace/Forest Trends - May 2012

The 6th “State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets” report shws a significant increase in demand from buyers in the US and major changes in the mix of offsets capturing market share, such as record sales of offsets from Asian wind farms and the coming-of-age of clean development projects in Africa....

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Developing Dimension (Executive Summary)

Developing Dimension (Executive Summary): State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2012

Molly Peters-Stanley, Katherine E. Hamilton - Ecosystem Marketplace/Forest Trends - May 2012
Dimensión en Desarollo

Dimensión en Desarollo: Estado del Mercado Voluntario de Carbono 2012

Molly Peters-Stanley, Katherine E. Hamilton - Ecosystem Marketplace/Forest Trends - June 2012
Myanmar

Myanmar

Overview of Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade

Kevin Woords, Kerstin Canby - University of California, Berkeley, Forest Trends - May 2012

Myanmar remains one of the world’s only countries with no prohibitions on log exports. The country provides much coveted teak and other hardwood logs to the region and beyond. Sawn wood, and to a lesser extent finished wood products, contribute a relatively small amount to Myanmar’s total exports of wood products. As in the majority of Mekong countries, one of the most significant trends affecting forest lands in Myanmar relates to...

Lessons Learned for REDD+ from PES and Conservation Incentive Programs

Lessons Learned for REDD+ from PES and Conservation Incentive Programs

Examples from Costa Rica, Mexico, and Ecuador

- FONAFIFO, CONAFOR, Ministry of Environment, Forest Trends, Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, Latin American and Caribbean Region of the World Bank - April 2012

At the COP16 in Cancun, representatives from Costa Rica, Mexico, and Ecuador held a discussion on payments for ecosystem services (PES) and conservation incentive programs in these three countries and their relevance for national initiatives related to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon (REDD+). Building on the success of

...

Resource Paper: No Net Loss and Loss-Gain Calculations in Biodiversity Offsets

Resource Paper: No Net Loss and Loss-Gain Calculations in Biodiversity Offsets

Toby Gardner, Amrei von Hase - BBOP - March 2012

This document is one of two Resource Papers (the other is on Limits to What Can Be Offset) written to update and complement information already published in the Offset Design Handbook (BBOP, 2009) and to support the interpretation and understanding of the Principles, Criteria and Indicators being developed for the BBOP Standard on Biodiversity Offsets (BBOP, 2012). The document specifically addresses Principle 4 (No Net Loss, ‘NNL’),...

Resource Paper: Limits to What Can Be Offset

Resource Paper: Limits to What Can Be Offset

Amrei von Hase - BBOP - March 2012

This document is one of two Resource Papers (the other being on No Net Loss) written to update information published in the BBOP Offset Design Handbook (2009) and to support the interpretation and understanding of the Principles, and of the Criteria and Indicators developed for the BBOP Standard on Biodiversity Offsets. The document specifically addresses Principle 2: ‘There are limits to what can be offset’. The paper outlines a set...

Bringing it Home

Bringing it Home

Taking Stock of Government Engagement with the Voluntary Carbon Market

Molly Peters-Stanley - Ecosystem Marketplace - March 2012

Government engagement with voluntary carbon market mechanisms is nothing new. But in contrast to a few years ago, governments are now increasingly turning to private sector mechanisms to deliver reductions on par with regulated instruments like the CDM; to address emissions sources neglected by current market frameworks; to enhance domestic companies’ supply chain competitiveness; and/or to reduce the cost to operate a domestic market...

Rights, Distribution, Risks and Benefits

Rights, Distribution, Risks and Benefits

For Forest Carbon Credit Transactions in Peru’s Conservation Concessions

Abog. Dolly Cristina Del Águila Arévalo - AMPA - February 2012

For REDD+ and forest carbon initiatives to work, it is important to understand the applicable legal framework in any given host country and locality in order to gain clarity about issues of ownership, authorization, benefit-distribution, and other practical matters. This article outlines the legal framework for forest carbon in Peru, with a particular focus on the region of San Martín and on the use of conservation concessions for REDD....

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Standard on Biodiversity Offsets

Standard on Biodiversity Offsets

BBOP - January 2012

This Standard on Biodiversity Offsets has been prepared by the Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP) to help auditors, developers, conservation groups, communities, governments and financial institutions that wish to assess biodiversity offsets against the BBOP Principles, Criteria and Indicators. ...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

How FLEGT and REDD+ can help address illegal logging

How FLEGT and REDD+ can help address illegal logging

A case from Vietnam

This story is about a low profile case involving household-based illegal logging. It describes actors involved in illegal logging practices and how these practices were linked to unclear property rights, unequal benefit distribution, collusion and corruption....

Forest Governance in Asia

Forest Governance in Asia

10 Years after the Bali Declaration

Kerstin Canby - Forest Trends - December 2011

This article takes stock of what happened since the Bali Declaration was signed ten years ago, in September 2001. The Bali Declaration concluded the East Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) Ministerial Conference. Although a non-legally binding document, the Bali Declaration committed the countries represented there – both timber producing and consuming nations – to intensify national and international efforts to combat...

Laying the Foundation

Laying the Foundation

An Analytical Tool for Assessing Legal and Institutional Readiness for PES

Slayde Hawkins - Forest Trends - December 2011

This booklet has been created as an initial resource for public sector officials interested in fostering an environment in which PES transactions can occur. While PES legal and policy readiness is likely to look very different from one country to another—depending on legal frameworks, as well as historical and current circumstances and pressures—understanding policy options for getting ready for PES transactions is an important first...

Creating New Values for Africa

Creating New Values for Africa

Emerging Ecosystem Service Markets

This booklet contains 12 featured projects and initiatives which demonstrate the current innovations and challenges to carbon, water, biodiversity PES implementation in Africa. Our hope is that this publication, (coupled with training sessions, policy advice, legal analysis, and network building) will enable community leaders, government actors, NGO technical staff, project developers and other interested persons to gain access to PES...

Aprendiendo sobre Compensación y Pagos por Servicios Ambientales

Aprendiendo sobre Compensación y Pagos por Servicios Ambientales

Rebecca Anzueto Estrada - Forest Trends - November 2011

...

Katoomba Issue Brief

Katoomba Issue Brief

Nested Approaches to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

Slayde Hawkins - Forest Trends/Katoomba Incubator - October 2011

This brief summarizes key reasons for taking a nested approach to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon (REDD+) and describes issues and options for policymakers....

Social and Biodiversity Impact Assessment (SBIA) Manual for REDD+ Projects

Social and Biodiversity Impact Assessment (SBIA) Manual for REDD+ Projects

Core Guidance for Project Proponents

Michael Richards, Steven Panfil - Forest Trends, Conservation International - October 2011

Are land-based carbon projects good for local people, biodiversity, and ecosystem services? The Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), Forest Trends, Fauna & Flora International (FFI), and the Rainforest Alliance formed an alliance with the aim of producing a user-friendly Manual on how to conduct cost-effective and credible social and biodiversity impact assessment. The concepts described in this Manual will be...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Manual para la Evaluación de Impacto Social y sobre la Biodiversidad (EISB) de los Proyectos REDD+

Manual para la Evaluación de Impacto Social y sobre la Biodiversidad (EISB) de los Proyectos REDD+

Parte 1: Guía basica para los proponentes de Proyectos

Michael Richards, Steven Panfil - Forest Trends/Katoomba Incubator, Conservation International - September 2011

Forest Trends, la Alianza para el Clima,Comunidad y Biodiversidad (CCBA), Rainforest Alliance y Fauna & Flora Internacional (FFI) han conformado una alianza con el objeto de producir un Manual de fácil uso sobre cómo llevar a cabo evaluaciones de impacto social y de biodiversidad costo-efectivas y confiables. Los conceptos descritos en este Manual serán relevantes para una amplia gama de actividades de carbono terrestre al nivel de...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Manuel sur l'Évaluation des Impacts Sociaux et sur la Biodiversité (EISB) pour les Projets de REDD+

Manuel sur l'Évaluation des Impacts Sociaux et sur la Biodiversité (EISB) pour les Projets de REDD+

Première Partie - Directives de Base a l'Intention des Initiateurs de Projets

Michael Richards, Steven Panfil - Forest Trends, Conservation International - September 2011

...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

State of Forest Carbon Markets 2011

State of Forest Carbon Markets 2011

From Canopy to Currency

David Diaz, Katherine Hamilton, Evan Johnson - Ecosystem Marketplace/Forest Trends - September 2011

This second annual State of the Forest Carbon Markets tracks, reports, and analyzes trends in global transactions of emissions reductions generated from forest carbon projects. The data and analysis that follow cover forest carbon activity in compliance carbon markets as well as voluntary carbon markets—such as the voluntary Over-the-Counter (OTC) market and the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). The report finds that growing from...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

State of Forest Carbon Markets 2011

State of Forest Carbon Markets 2011: From Canopy to Currency - Executive Summary

David Diaz, Katherine Hamilton, Evan Johnson - Ecosystem Marketplace - September 2011
El Estado de los Mercados de Carbono Forestal 2011

El Estado de los Mercados de Carbono Forestal 2011: Desde el Dosel al Dólar

David Diaz, Katherine Hamilton, Evan Johnson - Ecosystem Marketplace - February 2012
Bilan des Marchés du Carbone Forestier 2011

Bilan des Marchés du Carbone Forestier 2011: De la forêt à la finance

David Diaz, Katherine Hamilton, Evan Johnson - Ecosystem Marketplace - February 2012
Forest Carbon in Ghana

Forest Carbon in Ghana

The Legal Framework and the Role of Community Resource Management Areas (CREMAs)

Yinka Agidee - The Rock and Partners - September 2011

This report provides insight into Ghanaian statutory and case law and its potential implications for REDD+. As the legal nature of carbon rights has yet to be determined, the report does not purport to conclusively describe the proper treatment of carbon rights and benefits under existing law, but rather to outline implications and uncertainties for carbon rights and benefit sharing based on an in-depth examination of statutory and...

Lao PDR

Lao PDR

Overview of Forest Governance, Markets and Trade

Keith Barney, Kerstin Canby - York University, Forest Trends - August 2011

Over the past decade in Lao PDR, new regulations and policies related to logging and timber exports have aimed to conserve existing natural forests and promote a shift towards participatory, sustainable forest management. Still, the main challenge will be to implement these reforms effectively. In addition, over the past five to six years, considerable foreign direct investment has moved into Laos‘ forest-land sector, in the form of...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Lao PDR

Lao PDR: Overview of Forest Governance, Markets and Trade (Lao)

Keith Barney, Kerstin Canby - York University, Forest Trends - August 2011
Timber Trade Flow Maps of China and the Mekong Region

Timber Trade Flow Maps of China and the Mekong Region

This report provides a number of illustrated maps giving an overview of the timber trade flows in Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam and their respective trading partners. The maps provide information on the import and export in value as well as volume (RWE). In addition, there are a number of maps summarizing the regional Mekong trade flows. One part of these maps pictures the Mekong as one entity where exports and...

Buyer, Regulator, and Enabler - The Government's Role in Ecosystem Services Markets

Buyer, Regulator, and Enabler - The Government's Role in Ecosystem Services Markets

International Lessons Learned for Payments for Ecological Services in the People's Republic of China

Sara J. Scherr, Michael T. Bennett - EcoAgriculture Partners, Forest Trends - July 2011

This paper discusses the public sector's role in PES internationally. In general, the public sector's role in ecosystem services markets is both critical, and evolving. The public sector roles are evolving in three distinct ways: 1) Government as buyer of ecosystem services (a strategy to replace or complement government regulation); 2) Government as regulator, mobilizing private demand for ecosystem services through environmental...

Advancing Biochar in the Chesapeake

Advancing Biochar in the Chesapeake

A Strategy to Reduce Pollution from Poultry Litter

Phil Covell, Gena Gammie, Suzanne Hunt, Lopa Brunjes, Fai Ng, Dan Nees - Forest Trends/Katoomba Incubator, Carbon War Room - July 2011

This report highlights the insights gleaned from a two-day feasibility and project design charrette on poultry litter biochar for sustainable nutrient management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. It also integrates discussions that have since ensued with workshop participants and other experts in the field in order to illustrate whether and how biochar production and application may be a solution to poultry litter management in the...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

China

China

Overview of Forest Governance, Markets and Trade

Sun Xiufang, Kerstin Canby - Forest Trends - July 2011

In 2009, the Chinese wood products industry posted historic highs in terms of imports, production, and market activity. Trade data shows that 2009 imports of forest products were the highest on record, and domestic harvesting reached its highest peak in history in 2008. Domestic markets are booming, and while exports are down by volume, by value the export market was relatively stable. The economic downturn of 2008 and 2009, however,...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

China

China: Overview of Forest Governance, Markets and Trade (Chinese)

Sun Xiufang, Kerstin Canby - Forest Trends - July 2011
Building Forest Carbon Projects

Building Forest Carbon Projects

Step-by-Step Overview and Guide

Johannes Ebeling, Jacob Olander - Forest Trends - July 2011

(NOTE: Only the Overview and Guide part of this series can be downloaded from the link above; the other 8 guidance documents need to be downloaded from the respective links below).
Forest projects around the world are working to confront the practical challenges of reducing emissions and providing local benefits. To facilitate the development of forest projects, we have compiled strategic step-by–step guidance to emerging best...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

REDD Guidance

REDD Guidance: Technical Project Design

Joerg Seifert-Granzin - Forest Trends - July 2011
AR Guidance

AR Guidance: Technical Project Design

Johannes Ebeling, Alvaro Vallejo - Carbon Decisions International - July 2011
Carbon Stock Assessment Guidance

Carbon Stock Assessment Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Procedures

David Diaz, Matt Delaney - Forest Trends, L&C Carbon - July 2011
Community Engagement Guidance

Community Engagement Guidance: Good Practice for Forest Carbon Projects

Tom Blomley, Michael Richards - Natural Resource Consultants Ltd., Forest Trends - July 2011
Business Guidance

Business Guidance: Forest Carbon Marketing and Finance

Phil Covell - Forest Trends - July 2011
Biodiversity Impacts Guidance

Biodiversity Impacts Guidance: Key Assessment Issues for Forest Carbon Projects

John Pilgrim, Jonathan Ekstrom, Johannes Ebeling - The Biodiversity Consultancy - July 2011
Project Feasibility Assessment Template (updated)

Project Feasibility Assessment Template (updated)

...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

2011 Update - State of Biodiversity Markets

2011 Update - State of Biodiversity Markets

Offset and Compensation Programs Worldwide

Becca Madsen, Nathaniel Carroll, Daniel Kandy, Genevieve Bennett - Ecosystem Marketplace/Forest Trends - June 2011

This report is a companion paper to the initial report (State of Biodiversity Markets) that highlights the key developments over the past year. The report finds that global interest in biodiversity offsets and compensation has continued to develop over the past year – somewhat surprisingly, given the financial challenges that plague the private and public sectors alike. While there has not been dramatic growth, there has been steady...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Biomass Map of Ghana

Biomass Map of Ghana

Overview

The outcome of negotiations in Cancun (COP 16) encouraged developing country Parties to contribute to mitigation actions in the forest sector by undertaking REDD+ activities. While this progress strengthens the opportunity for many tropical nations to pursue carbon finance for ecosystem protection, it also presents the challenge of assessing national carbon stocks and monitoring change over time. To address this challenge, countries...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Back to the Future

Back to the Future

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011 (UPDATED)

Molly Peters-Stanley, Katherine Hamilton, Thomas Marcello, Milo Sjardin - Ecosystem Marketplace/Forest Trends - June 2011

For five years, Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace and Bloomberg New Energy Finance have published the State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets Reports to shed light on trading volumes, credit prices, project types, locations, and the motivations of buyers in this market. Every year’s marketplace seems more complex than the one before, as actors continually refine their programs, businesses, and investments in search of a more perfect...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Back to the Future

Back to the Future: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011 - Executive Summary (UPDATED)

Molly Peters-Stanley, Katherine Hamilton, Thomas Marcello, Milo Sjardin - Ecosystem Marketplace/Forest Trends - June 2011
Aprendendo sobre Servicios Ambientais

Aprendendo sobre Servicios Ambientais

Rebecca Vonada, Beto Borges - Forest Trends - June 2011

The State of Acre, Brazil recently created a state PES scheme based on the carbon market, but also biodiversity and watershed services. This booklet contains key concepts about payment for ecosystem services; it was prepared for technical staff of the government in the state of Acre, Brazil. ...

Introduction to Payments for Ecosystem Services

Introduction to Payments for Ecosystem Services

A Reference Book for Uganda

Rebecca Vonada, Tommie Herbert, Sissel Waage - Forest Trends, The Katoomba Group - April 2011

This manual introduces the basic concepts related to payments for ecosystem services and their application in Uganda in a clear and accessible manner. The Annex also presents concepts related to climate change and forest carbon markets. ...

Surui Carbono

Surui Carbono

Free, Prior, and Informed Consent - Surui Carbon Project

- Forest Trends, ACT Brasil, Metareila Association of the Surui People, Kaninde, IDESAM, FUNBIO - March 2011

This report documents, demonstrates and analyzes the process of obtaining free, prior and informed consent from the Paiter-Surui People regarding the Surui Carbon Project. This project represents a promising and innovative scenario in the Amazon, because it is designed to enhance environmental conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources, while ensuring financial resources for effective management of indigenous lands and...

Towards Cost-effective Social Impact Assessment of REDD+ Projects

Towards Cost-effective Social Impact Assessment of REDD+ Projects

Meeting the Challenge of Multiple Benefit Standards

Michael Richards, Steven Panfil - Forest Trends, CCBA - March 2011

This paper describes some of the challenges of meeting standards for multiple benefit forest carbon and other land use based carbon projects. There is considerable current controversy about the social and equity impacts of such projects. The authors argue that a combination of more robust standards, such as the Climate Community and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards, for assessing the social performance of projects, and cost...

Nested Approaches to REDD+

Nested Approaches to REDD+

An Overview of Issues and Options

Jacob Olander, Joerg Seifert-Granzin, Thiago Chagas, Charlotte Streck, Robert O'Sullivan - Forest Trends - March 2011

Interest in "nested" approaches to REDD+ has grown steadily as policy makers, practitioners and investors seek to reconcile approaches to reducing, and rewarding, emissions reductions at different scales - national, subnational and project.  The 16th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in Cancun marked the UNFCCC's formal acknowledgement of subnational approaches to REDD+ accounting and monitoring.  National

...

Taking Stock

Taking Stock

Payments for Forest Ecosystem Services in the United States

D. Evan Mercer, David Cooley, Katherine Hamilton - February 2011

...

Taking Stock: Payments for Forest Ecosystem Services in the United States

Taking Stock: Payments for Forest Ecosystem Services in the United States

D. Evan Mercer, Katherine Hamilton - David Cooley - February 2011

This report compiles data on a wide range of PES mechanisms – from government conservation incentive programs, to voluntary markets, to compliance-driven ecosystem service markets such as wetland mitigation credits. According to the report, more than 80% of all forest-based PES money in the US came from non...

Pricing the Environment

Pricing the Environment

Generation's Colin le Duc backs Forest Trends

- Absolute Return - February 2011

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Investing in Forest Carbon

Investing in Forest Carbon

Lessons from the First 20 Years

Sissel Waage, Katherine Hamilton - Forest Trends - January 2011

The first carbon offset sales from forestry projects occurred as early as 1990. Over the past two decades, a diverse marketplace has developed. Despite limited regulatory drivers, this development has included the establishment of some industry infrastructure—legal and political frameworks, project standards and methodologies, and expert resources. While much of this infrastructure was developed in the voluntary carbon market, more...

Roots in the Water

Roots in the Water

Legal Frameworks for Mangrove PES in Vietnam

Slayde Hawkins, Phuc Xuan To, Pham Xuan Phuong, Pham Thu Thuy, Nguyen Duc Tu, Chu Van Guong, Sharon Brown, Peter Dart, Suzanne Robertson, Nguyen Vu, Richard McNally - Forest Trends, Ministry of Argiculture and Rural Development, Charles Darwin University, BirdLife International, GTZ - December 2010

Forest Trends and the Katoomba Group have commissioned this study into the legal and regulatory frameworks for mangrove management and PES in Vietnam. This study is timely as in recent years various Vietnamese policies have prioritized terrestrial forest, mangrove, and coastal conservation, and the national government is now considering market mechanisms as a potential conservation tool. This study suggests that a sector-based approach...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Roots in the Water

Roots in the Water: Legal Frameworks for Mangrove PES in Vietnam (VIETNAMESE)

Slayde Hawkins, To Xuan Phuc, Pham Xuan Phuang, Pham Thu Thuy, Nguyen Tuc Tu, Chu Van Cuong, Sharon Brown, Peter Dart, Suzanne Robertson, Nguyen Vu, Richard McNally - Forest Trends, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Charles Darwin University, BirdLife International, GTZ - August 2011
Contracting for Forest Carbon

Contracting for Forest Carbon

Elements of a Forest Carbon Purchase Agreement

Slayde Hawkins, Michelle Nowlin, Daniel Ribeiro, Ryan Stoa, Ryke Longest, Jim Salzman - Forest Trends, Duke Environmental Law & Policy Clinic - December 2010

Forest carbon payments – payments for restoring or planting forest, or for preventing forest degradation or deforestation – can help to prevent and reverse forest loss. However, forest carbon transactions today raise many challenging issues for participants, including difficult legal questions. Despite almost twenty years of transacting forest carbon, and more than 67.8 million tons of carbon dioxide transacted, transaction costs and...

Environmental Funds and Payments for Ecosystem Services

Environmental Funds and Payments for Ecosystem Services

RedLAC Capacity Building Project for Environmental Funds

Tommie Herbert, Rebecca Vonada, Michael Jenkins, Ricardo Bayon - Forest Trends - November 2010

RedLAC implements a capacity building project with the objective of strengthening the capacity of EFs to develop innovative financial mechanisms for biodiversity conservation, reducing their dependence on donations, and also to support the establishment of new EFs, by systematizing and sharing proven best practices in funds day to day operation. This book was prepared to support the first workshop of the capacity building initiative,...

Budongo-Bugoma Landscape REDD+ Project

Budongo-Bugoma Landscape REDD+ Project

Feasibility Assessment

Johannes Ebeling, Sara Namirembe - Forest Trends - November 2010

This potential REDD+ project aims to reduce deforestation and degradation and to promote regeneration of forests in the Budongo-Bugoma landscape in Western Uganda. It would mainly focus on a mosaic of private and community forests in 3 districts (Hoima, Kibaale, and Kyenjojo). Approximately 90,000 ha of high forest and 120,000 ha of woodland remain in the landscape outside protected areas, predominantly in small patches of up to...

Consolidating National REDD+ Accounting and Subnational Activities in Ghana

Consolidating National REDD+ Accounting and Subnational Activities in Ghana

Thiago Chagas, Robert O'Sullivan, Carina Bracer, Charlotte Streck - Climate Focus - November 2010

Forest Trends engaged with Climate Focus to prepare an assessment of options for integrating subnational activities on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) into the design of the national REDD+ architecture in Ghana in a way that is consistent with the emerging international REDD+ policy. This assessment forms part of a broader effort led by Forest Trends and the Nature Conservation Research Centre to...

Biodiversity Offsets: Policy Options for Government

Biodiversity Offsets: Policy Options for Government

Michael Crowe, Kerry ten Kate - October 2010

This paper draws on the experience of governments that have already developed and implemented biodiversity offsetting policies. It also takes into account the practical experience of businesses in putting offsets into place on a voluntary basis, including those undertaken in collaboration with BBOP as pilot projects. Its purpose is to serve as a very basic introduction to some key issues, which certainly deserve to be considered in...

Avoided Deforestation (REDD) and Indigenous Peoples: experiences, challenges and opportunities in the Amazon context

Avoided Deforestation (REDD) and Indigenous Peoples: experiences, challenges and opportunities in the Amazon context

Instituto Socioambiental and Forest Trends, 2010

This book published by the Instituto Socioambiental, with support from partner institution Forest Trends, seeks to provide a source of information and reflections which can be useful for the discussion and implementation of REDD projects in indigenous lands, in Brazil, and other Amazon countries. Contents include: - Indigenous Lands and the Climate Crisis - Forest Resources in Indigenous Territories and REDD Projects in the...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Tools for the Tides

Tools for the Tides

Exploring Coastal and Marine Markets

- Ecosystem Marketplace, Forest Trends, Katoomba Group - June 2010

Global climate-change talks in Copenhagen might not have yielded a new greenhouse-gas protocol, but they did yield an agreement on the need to develop financing mechanisms that reward people in developing countries for saving their rainforests and adopting sustainable landuse practices — both of which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capturing carbon in trees and soil. Meanwhile, scores of projects across both the developed and...

Beyond Borders

Beyond Borders

PES and REDD in the ASEAN Region

- Ecosystem Marketplace, Forest Trends, Katoomba Group - June 2010

An Insight Series publication covering: Payments for Ecosystem Services: Scaling Up…and Down State of the Forest Carbon Markets Asia Round Peg, Square Hole: Forest Carbon under Existing Law in Southeast Asia Oddar Meanchey: REDD in Cambodia Participatory Forest Management EM Cheat Sheet: What is a Social Impact Assessment? Asian Governments Explore Ecosystem Markets for Environmental Protection The State of Play...

State of Watershed Payments

State of Watershed Payments

An Emerging Marketplace

Tracy Stanton, Marta Echavarria, Katherine Hamilton, Caroline Ott - Ecosystem Marketplace - June 2010

How can we as a society address the many problems that plague the waterfront? How do we get people to be more mindful about their water use? How do we regulate pollution flowing into our waterways? How do we put a stop to the growing number of dead zones around the world? And how do we ensure that humans – and the plants and animals on which we depend – have access to the quantity and quality of water that they need to survive? This...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Executive Summary: State of Watershed Payments

Executive Summary: State of Watershed Payments: An Emerging Marketplace

Tracy Stanton, Marta Echavarria, Katherine Hamilton, Caroline Ott - Ecosystem Marketplace - June 2010
Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects

Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects

Part I - Core Guidance for Project Proponents

Michael Richards, Steve Panfil - Forest Trends, CCBA - June 2010

Forest Trends, CCBA, FFI, and Rainforest Alliance have published Version 1.0 of a “Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects.” The Manual is designed to be used by carbon project proponents aiming for validation under the CCB Standards, or other multiple-benefit carbon standards. The NGOs involved in this initiative believe that a combination of credible social impact assessment methods and robust standards...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects

Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects

Part II - Toolbox of Methods and Support Materials

Michael Richards, Steve Panfil - Forest Trends, CCBA - June 2010

Forest Trends, CCBA, FFI, and Rainforest Alliance have published Version 1.0 of a “Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects.” The Manual is designed to be used by carbon project proponents aiming for validation under the CCB Standards, or other multiple-benefit carbon standards. The NGOs involved in this initiative believe that a combination of credible social impact assessment methods and robust standards...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise

The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise

A Tool for Prioritizing Sub-National REDD+ Activities - Case Studies from Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda

Michael Richards - Forest Trends - June 2010

This report describes the REDD+ Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE) methodology, and summarises the experience of developing and using it in three case study countries Tanzania, Uganda and Ghana. ROSE is a tool for classifying and prioritizing potential REDD+ sub-national activities, and for assessing critical constraints to project development, especially those associated with the legal, political, and institutional framework for...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise for Ghana

The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise for Ghana: ROSE Expert Workshop

Michael Richards - Forest Trends - August 2010
The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE), Uganda

The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE), Uganda

Sara Namirembe, Onesmus Mugyenyi - Forest Trends/Katoomba Incubator, ACODE - July 2011
Katoomba Issue Brief

Katoomba Issue Brief: REDD Opportunities in Uganda

Slayde Hawkins - Forest Trends/Katoomba Incubator - July 2011
Building Bridges: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2010

Building Bridges: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2010

Kate Hamilton, Milo Sjardin, Molly Peters-Stanley, Thomas Marcello - Ecosystem Marketplace, New Energy Finance - June 2010

This fourth annual “State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets” report is designed to give a market‐wide perspective on trading volumes, credit prices, project types, locations, and the motivations of buyers in this market. Findings are based on data voluntarily reported by 200 offset suppliers, as well as exchanges and registries. Because of the challenges of inventorying and obtaining data from this disaggregated marketplace,...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Executive Summary: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2010

Executive Summary: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2010: Building Bridges

Kate Hamilton, Milo Sjardin, Molly Peters-Stanley, Thomas Marcello - Ecosystem Marketplace, New Energy Finance - June 2010
Aprendiendo sobre Pagos por Servicios Ambientales

Aprendiendo sobre Pagos por Servicios Ambientales

Fundamentos para la elaboración de proyectos de carbono forestal

Marcos Rügnitz Tito - ICRAF - May 2010

El propósito de este manual es introducir líderes comunitarios, agentes del gobierno, técnicos de ONGs y otros actores a los conceptos básicos relacionados al cambio climático y pagos por servicios ambientales, con un enfoque en el mercado de carbono, de una forma clara y didáctica....

Quotas, Powers, Patronage, and Illegal Rent-Seeking

Quotas, Powers, Patronage, and Illegal Rent-Seeking

The Political Economy and the Timber Trade in Southern Laos

Ian G. Baird - April 2010

Forests are extremely important to the people of Laos. They are the basis for the livelihoods of most of those living in rural areas, especially the poor and Laos’ large population of indigenous peoples. Forests are also an important source of government revenue, and Lao forests are being increasingly recognized for the high levels of biodiversity that they support, including many rare and endemic species. They also provide various...

State of Biodiversity Markets

State of Biodiversity Markets

Offset and Compensation Programs Worldwide

Becca Madsen, Nathaniel Carroll, Kelly Moore Brands - Ecosystem Marketplace - March 2010

This report provides the status and trends of biodiversity offset and compensatory mitigation programs by geographical region. In each section, the report summarizes the total active programs and developing activities, and broad metrics like total known payments and land area protected or restored. In each region, we also analyze the characteristics of offset programs—what drives the program, how offsets are created, who the buyers and...

Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act

Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act

Implications for Exporters of Thailand's Forest Products

R. Juge Gregg - March 2010

A new law gives the U.S. government the power to fine – and even jail – individuals and companies who deal in illegally harvested or trafficked wood products. The U.S. government can even use this law, called the Lacey Act, to impose significant penalties on individuals and companies who do not realize that their wood is tainted. This law, and the new import declaration it requires, will affect manufacturers and exporters who ship a...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

A Primer

- Forest Trends - February 2010

Healthy and robust marine ecosystems provide the underpinnings for profitable industries and support coastal communities throughout the world. In addition, oceans play crucial roles in regulating the atmosphere and modulating weather, storing carbon, cycling nutrients, and providing other ecosystem services. Coastal areas provide essential resources, buffer land from storms, and provide living space for almost half of the

...

Paying Poseidon: Financing the Protection of Valuable Ecosystem Services

Paying Poseidon: Financing the Protection of Valuable Ecosystem Services

Steve Zwick, Rob Luke, Ameer Abdulla, Erik Ness, Alice Kenny, Tundi Agardy, Winnie Lau - Ecosystem Marketplace, IUCN, Forest Trends - February 2010

Global climate-change talks in Copenhagen might not have yielded a new greenhouse-gas protocol, but they did yield an agreement on the need to develop financing mechanisms that reward people in developing countries for saving their rainforests and adopting sustainable land-use practices — both of which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capturing carbon in trees and soil. Meanwhile, scores of projects across both the

...

State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009

State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009

Taking Root and Branching Out

Katherine Hamilton, Unna Chokkalingam, Maria Bendana - Ecosystem Marketplace - January 2010

This report was created to increase transparency and answer fundamental questions about the supply of forestry-based carbon credits, such as transaction volumes, credit prices, hectares influenced and tenure rights. It outlines the aggregate numbers from our survey of 61 project developers1 and 34 intermediaries representing 226 projects across 40 countries. This report is entirely based on information volunteered by these...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Executive Summary: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009

Executive Summary: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009: Taking Root and Branching Out

Kate Hamilton, Unna Chokkalingam, Maria Bendana - Ecosystem Marketplace - January 2010
El Estado de los Mercados de Carbono Forestal

El Estado de los Mercados de Carbono Forestal: Echando Raíces y Ramas

Katherine Hamilton, Unna Chokkalingam, Maria Bendana - Ecosystem Marketplace - January 2011
Timber Markets and Trade between Laos and Vietnam

Timber Markets and Trade between Laos and Vietnam

A Commodity Chain Analysis of Vietnamese-Driven Timber Flows

- Forest Trends - January 2010

The Vietnamese wood manufacturing industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, becoming one of the largest furniture exporters in the world. With more than 2,000 wood processing and 450 wood export companies in Vietnam, about 4.5 million m3 of raw wood materials are imported each year from other countries around the world. With approximately 11 million hectares of forest, Laos serves as an important supplier of timber for Vietnam’s...

The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE) - Brief:

The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE) - Brief:

A Tool for Prioritizing Sub-National REDD Opportunities and Constraints Experiences in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda

Katoomba Incubator - 2010

...

Pro-Poor REDD – How will we Know?

Pro-Poor REDD – How will we Know?

Social Impact Assessment of Land-based Carbon Activities

Forest Trends, Rainforest Alliance - The Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), Fauna & Flora International (FFI) - 2010

...

 Brazilian tribe owns carbon rights to Amazon rainforest land

Brazilian tribe owns carbon rights to Amazon rainforest land

Rhett Butler - Mongabay - December 2009

...

Legal Opinion Finds Indigenous Amazon Tribe Owns Carbon Rights

Legal Opinion Finds Indigenous Amazon Tribe Owns Carbon Rights

David DeFranza - Treehugger - December 2009

In what's being called a "landmark" opinion, the international law firm Baker & McKenzie has stated that the Surui tribe owns the carbon rights of their native forests. Though not legally binding, the opinion has been released at a time when the political climate in Brazil is working to protect indigenous rights and could have serious implications for any REDD program that emerges from COP15....

Surui

Surui

Carbon Finance and the Protection of Indigenous Peoples' Forests in the Amazon

Katoomba Incubator - December 2009

In late 2007 Almir Surui, the internationally-recognized leader of the Surui people, approached Forest Trends and the Katoomba Group to seek support in developing a project to restore and conserve portions of their ancestral lands. From this conversation grew a commitment to collaborate and explore the potential for emerging carbon markets to strengthen the protection of the large area of native forest under Surui stewardship, and...

Baker & McKenzie Legal Analysis - Surui REDD Project

Baker & McKenzie Legal Analysis - Surui REDD Project

Katoomba Incubator - December 2009

Forest Trends has received a new analysis commissioned from Baker & McKenzie on the legal aspects of the “Surui Community Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation – REDD Carbon Project,” involving approximately 248,000 ha of their traditional territory located in the states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso in the Brazilian Amazon. This Surui REDD Carbon Project is being developed by the Surui as project proponents with technical...

Sweetening the Deal for Shade-Grown Cocoa

Sweetening the Deal for Shade-Grown Cocoa

A Preliminary Review of Constraints and Feasibility of 'Cocoa Carbon' in Ghana

The main implication of these preliminary economic results is that carbon finance alone (at current carbon prices) will not likely be the sole or necessarily the primary means for persuading farmers to adopt higher shade cocoa systems. It could however be an enabling factor to encourage improved farming practices and productivity. The models imply that tree tenure reform, combined with policy, fiscal and institutional reforms in the...

Realising REDD

Realising REDD

Implications of Ghana's Current Legal Framework for Trees

Katoomba Incubator - October 2009

Challenges associated with tree tenure and property rights, while very important, should not be seen as complete barriers to initial REDD‐Plus initiatives. Efforts to introduce REDD projects in rural communities and landscapes in Ghana should move forward, particularly in consideration of the following points: Lead by example: harnessing REDD compatible structures and legislation, such as CREMAs or legal limits on logging in...

Aprendendo sobre Serviços Ambientais

Aprendendo sobre Serviços Ambientais

Marina Campos - August 2009

Pagamentos por serviços ambientais (PSA), tais como os mercados de carbono, têm o potencial de gerar novas fontes de recursos para a conservação da biodiversidade e melhorar os meios de sustento das comunidades locais. Na medida em que esquemas de crédito de carbono, tais como seqüestro de carbono por reflorestamento e redução das emissões do desmatamento e degradação (REDD), ganham atenção como mecanismos para promover a...

Forests

Forests

Taking Root in the Voluntary Carbon Markets

Over the past year, the term ‘REDD’ (reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation) has risen from obscure acronym to hot-button issue for policymakers, conservation groups, investors and academics across the globe, with good reason. According the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land-use change accounts for approximately 20% of global greenhouse gas emissions—more emissions than the transportation sector...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Markets for Ecosystem Services in China

Markets for Ecosystem Services in China

An Exploration of China's "Eco-Compensation" and Other Market-Based Environmental Policies

Michael T. Bennett - June 2009

This report documents recent policy innovations for the conservation and management of ecosystem services in China. Policymakers have become increasingly interested in developing new approaches to address China’s multiplying conservation challenges and resource constraints in face of break-neck economic growth. This has led China’s central and local governments to rapidly expand the range of policy and program innovations, many under...

BBOP Overview - 2009

BBOP Overview - 2009

- BBOP - May 2009

An overview of BBOP and the concept of biodiversity offsets, published in 2009. The document accompanied the publication of a broad set of guidance, including handbooks on offset design and implementation, issues papers, case studies and a glossary of terms. This overview presents the vision, mission and goals of BBOP, and its achievements. It also explores various challenges in offset development and next steps....

Biodiversity Offset Design Handbook - 2009

Biodiversity Offset Design Handbook - 2009

- BBOP - May 2009

The Offset Design Handbook presents information on a range of issues, approaches, methodologies and possible tools from which offset planners can select the approaches best suited to their individual circumstances when designing a biodiversity offset. It describes a generic process that offset planners could use in designing a biodiversity offset, from initial conception of a development project to the selection of offset sites and...

Biodiversity Offset Design Handbook Appendicies - 2009

Biodiversity Offset Design Handbook Appendicies - 2009

- BBOP - May 2009

This companion volume of Appendices to the BBOP Offset Design Handbook offers readers a summary of a sample of methodologies relevant to biodiversity offsets and some references on them for further reading. Some approaches are required or recommended by government policies; some are the subject of the lending requirements of banks; some are still under development (the approach adapted and tested by BBOP in its pilot projects, REMEDE,...

BBOP Glossary Phase 1

BBOP Glossary Phase 1

A glossary of terms relating to biodiversity offsets, as published in May 2009. This document will be replaced by an updated version in March 2012....

Ambatovy Case Study - 2009

Ambatovy Case Study - 2009

Pierre O Berner, Steven Dickinson, Aristide Andrianarimisa - Ambatovy, Golder Associates, Wildlife Conservation Society - May 2009

A case study of the Ambatovy project biodiversity offset in Madagascar. Published in May 2009....

Bainbridge Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Bainbridge Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Case study of the BBOP pilot biodiversity offset work on Bainbridge Island, Washington, US. Published in 2009....

Ango American Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Ango American Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Case study of the AngloAmerican BBOP pilot biodiversity offset in South Africa. Published in 2009....

Newmont Mining Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Newmont Mining Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Case study of Newmont Mining BBOP pilot biodiversity offset at the Akyem gold mine, Ghana. Published in 2009....

Non-BBOP Compensatory Conservation Case Studies - 2009

Non-BBOP Compensatory Conservation Case Studies - 2009

Susie Brownlie - BBOP - May 2009

A summary of non-BBOP biodiversity offset case studies. Published in 2009....

Solid Energy New Zealand Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Solid Energy New Zealand Biodiversity Offset Case Study - 2009

Case study of Solid Energy New Zealand BBOP pilot biodiversity offset at the Strongman coal mine, South Island, New Zealand. Published in 2009....

Biodiversity Offset Implementation Handbook

Biodiversity Offset Implementation Handbook

- BBOP - May 2009

The success of a biodiversity offset will depend on ensuring that an effective institutional and management structure is in place; that financial flows are sufficient; and that systems are in place to ensure that the offset objectives are achieved. This Handbook assumes that the nature of offsetting activities and magnitude and location of the offset (in a single location, or as a composite) have already been identified and the planner...

Biodiversity Offset Cost-Benefit Handbook

Biodiversity Offset Cost-Benefit Handbook

- BBOP - May 2009

To be successful, biodiversity offsets should compensate indigenous peoples, local communities and other local stakeholders for any residual impacts of the project on their biodiversity based livelihoods and amenity. They also need to deliver the required conservation gains without making local people worse off, for example due to land and resource use restrictions created by the biodiversity offset. This requires a cost-benefit...

The Relationship between Biodiversity Offsets and Impact Assessment

The Relationship between Biodiversity Offsets and Impact Assessment

BBOP - May 2009

This Resource Paper was prepared by the Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP) to help developers, conservation groups, communities, governments and financial institutions that wish to consider and develop best practice related to biodiversity offsets. It offers information on how to integrate biodiversity offsets with impact assessment, including Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for policies, plans and programs...

Biodiversity Offsets and Stakeholder Participation

Biodiversity Offsets and Stakeholder Participation

BBOP - May 2009

This Resource Paper was prepared by the Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP) to help developers, conservation groups, communities, governments and financial institutions that wish to consider and develop best practice related to biodiversity offsets. It provides information on stakeholder identification, engagement and participation in the design and implementation of biodiversity offsets, considering both the benefits...

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2009

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2009

Fortifying the Foundation

Katherine Hamilton, Milo Sjardin, Allison Shapiro, Thomas Marcello - Ecosystem Marketplace, New Carbon Finance - May 2009

This report was created to answer fundamental questions about the voluntary carbon markets such as transaction volumes, credit prices, project types, locations, and the motivations of buyers in this market. Over the past several years, these markets have not only become an opportunity for citizen consumer action, but also an alternative source of carbon finance and an incubator for carbon market innovation. As the voluntary carbon...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2009 - Exectutive Summary

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2009 - Exectutive Summary

Katherine Hamilton, Milo Sjardin, Allison Shapiro, Thomas Marcello - Ecosystem Marketplace, New Carbon Finance - May 2009
Scoping Study for the Design and Use of Biodiversity Offsets in an English Context

Scoping Study for the Design and Use of Biodiversity Offsets in an English Context

Final Report to Defra

Treweek et al. 2009 - April 2009

In 2007, the UK’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified the need to explore new policy options, including market creation in biodiversity or incentives for biodiversity “such as biodiversity offsets”, particularly to reduce rates of loss of non-designated sites and features. In 2008, Defra commissioned a scoping study for the design and use of biodiversity offsets in an English context. The report...

Beyond Carbon

Beyond Carbon

Biodiversity and Water Markets

- Ecosystem Marketplace - April 2009

It is widely acknowledged that well-functioning ecosystems provide reliable and clean flows of water, productive soils, healthy and balanced biota, and many other services for human well-being. It is also widely documented that today many ecosystems and the services they provide are under threat.

The use of markets and market-based mechanisms to conserve and pay for ecosystem services is a growing global trend that is...

Adding Value

Adding Value

Can FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreements Lead to Increased Investment and Trade for Partner Countries?

Dominic Elson - April 2009

In May 2003, the European Union published its proposal for a Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan which sets out a range of measures that aim to tackle the global problem of illegal logging and associated trade, including financial and technical support to achieve improved forest governance in developing timber-producing countries. It also provides for Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) between these...

Recent Developments in Forest Product Trade between Russia and China

Recent Developments in Forest Product Trade between Russia and China

Potential Production, Processing, Consumption and Trade Scenarios

Steven Northway , Gary Q. Bull, Anatoly Shvidenko, Luke Bailey - University of British Columbia, Forest Trends, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry - March 2009

China has a very significant role in the global timber market and this has significant ramifications for forests, forest livelihoods and the structure of forest industries around the world. In this report we will focus on possible future trends in the forest products-processing, consumption and trade between China and its main suppliers, with a particular focus on Eastern Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The data used for the...

Ecosystem Marketplace Flyer

Ecosystem Marketplace Flyer

Markets depend on transparent and reliable information to function. What is true for investors on Wall Street is equally true for environmental market players trading in carbon, water quality, and biodiversity. Unfortunately, obtaining information for these markets can sometimes be exceedingly difficult. In many ways they resemble the Wall Street of the 1800s – with information closely guarded by those who profit from it – rather...

Payments for Ecosystem Services

Payments for Ecosystem Services

Legal and Institutional Frameworks

Thomas Greiber - IUCN Environmental Law Centre - 2009

Analysis and engagement with partners working on ecosystem services transactions, policies and laws over the past 10 years have demonstrated a clear need to better understand the legal and institutional frameworks that have the potential to promote or hinder the development of payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes, as well as the complex legal considerations that affect ecosystem services projects. This report has been prepared...

Pagos por Servicios Ambientales

Pagos por Servicios Ambientales

Marcos Jurídicos e Institucionales

Thomas Greiber ed. - IUCN Environmental Law Centre - 2009

El análisis y la interacción con socios involucrados en transacciones relacionadas con servicios ambientales y políticas y leyes conexas en los últimos 10 años, han evidenciado una clara necesidad de comprender mejor los marcos jurídicos e institucionales que tienen el potencial de favorecer o entorpecer el desarrollo de regímenes de pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA), así como las complejas consideraciones jurídicas que afectan a...

Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act

Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act

Implications for Malaysian Forest Products Exporters

R. Juge Gregg , Amelia Porges - Sidley Austin LLP - December 2008

Malaysia is one of the largest producers and suppliers of tropical hardwood and related products destined for the United States. In 2007, the United States imported almost 2.2 m3 RWE of timber products from Malaysia - mostly plywood and furniture - totaling USD$1.1 billion in value. Sabah and Sarawak supply the great majority of the plywood which the USA imports from Malaysia in roughly equal proportion. Between 2001 and 2007, the...

Linking FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreements to Jobs and Growth

Linking FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreements to Jobs and Growth

Potential Challenges and Benefits for Small and Medium Sized Forest Enterprises

Dominic Elson - DFID, Forest Trends - November 2008

This brief report discusses the potential impact of the European Commission's Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) on the extent to which improved investment and business climates supported by VPA programs can support the small and medium forest enterprise (SMFE) sector. Recognizing the important roles that SMFEs play in rural development and the alleviation of rural poverty, the report argues that VPAs must seek to support...

Amendment To The U.S. Lacey Act

Amendment To The U.S. Lacey Act

Implications for Exporters of Indonesian Forest Products

R. Juge Gregg, Amelia Porges - Sidley Austin LLP - October 2008

A new law gives the U.S. government the power to fine, and even jail, individuals and companies who traffic in illegally harvested wood products. The U.S. government can even use this law, called the Lacey Act, to impose significant penalties on individuals and companies who do not realize that their wood is tainted. This new law, and the new import declaration it requires, will affect manufacturers and exporters who ship a variety of...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Forest Products Trade Between China & Africa

Forest Products Trade Between China & Africa

An Analysis of Imports & Exports

Kerstin Canby, James Hewitt, Luke Bailey, Eugenia Katsigris, Xiufang Sun - Forest Trends - October 2008

Recent reports of China's efforts to secure access to natural resources in Africa suggest that timber has already become an important traded commodity between China and the African continent. Many hold a general impression that Africa exports a significant and growing amount of timber to China. However, the true magnitude of the China-Africa forest product trade and its trends over time has been poorly documented to date. Greater...

Marine Ecosystems and Management Newsletter

Marine Ecosystems and Management Newsletter

International News and Analysis on Marine Ecosystem-based Management

...

Amendment To The U.S. Lacey Act:

Amendment To The U.S. Lacey Act:

Implications For Vietnamese Forest Products Exporters

Juge Gregg, Amelia Porges - Sidley Austin LLP - September 2008

A new law gives the U.S. government the power to fine, and even jail, individuals and companies who traffic in illegally harvested wood products. The U.S. government can even use this law, called the Lacey Act, to impose significant penalties on individuals and companies who do not realize that their wood is tainted. This new law, and the new import declaration it requires, will affect manufacturers and exporters who ship a variety of...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act

Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act

Implications for Chinese Forest Products Exporters

R. Juge Gregg, Amelia Porges - Sidley Austin LLP - August 2008

A recently passed law gives the U.S. government the power to fine, and even jail, individuals and companies who traffic in illegally harvested wood products. The U.S. government can even use this law, called the Lacey Act, to impose significant penalties on individuals and companies who do not realize that their wood is tainted. This new law, and the new import declaration it requires, will affect manufacturers and exporters who ship a...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Chinese Version: Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act

Chinese Version: Amendment to the U.S. Lacey Act: Implications for Chinese Forest Products Exporters

R. Juge Gregg, Amelia Porges - Sidley Austin LLP - November 2008
Payments for Ecosystem Services

Payments for Ecosystem Services

Getting Started

- The Katoomba Group - May 2008

This primer forms part of the activities implemented within the Global Strategy for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Follow-Up, and offers a starting point from which to assess the potential for PES in specific communities around the world. It also provides pointers for designing and planning PES transactions. Community-benefit driven, or “pro-poor” PES, is the main focus of this work. Specifically, this primer describes: The...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Investment in the Liberian Forest Sector

Investment in the Liberian Forest Sector

A Roadmap to Legal Forest Operations in Liberia (English and Chinese)

John Woods, Arthur G. Blundell, Robert Simpson - Forestry Development Authority of Liberia, UN Security Council Sanctions Committee on Liberia, U.S. Forest Service Office of International Programs, Forest Trends, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office - February 2008

This briefing document explains why Liberia needed reforms that ensure that logging no longer contributes to conflict in this country and how logging will be conducted under the new law and regulations that govern the management of Liberia's forests....

China and East Asia Program

China and East Asia Program

Overview of China-East Asia Information Bulletin Series

This is an overview document of the China and East Asia Program's Information Bulletin Series, which provides summaries of all the Information Bulletins in one succinct document. Issues covered in the Bulletin are related to China and its trade in forest products with producer countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The full length Information Bulletins are available to download below. ...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

ISSUE 1: CHINA AND THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR FOREST PRODUCTS: SUMMARY

ISSUE 1: CHINA AND THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR FOREST PRODUCTS: SUMMARY: Available in Chinese only

A. White, X. Sun, K. Canby, J. Xu, C. Barr, E. Katsigris, G. Bull, C. Cossalter and S. Nilsson. Chinese translation by X. Sun - June 2006
ISSUE 2: ILLEGAL LOGGING BRIEFING PAPER

ISSUE 2: ILLEGAL LOGGING BRIEFING PAPER: Available in Chinese only

Chinese translation by X. Sun of a briefing paper by D. Brack - Chatham House UK - July 2006
ISSUE 5: HELPING LIBERIA ESCAPE CONFLICT TIMBER

ISSUE 5: HELPING LIBERIA ESCAPE CONFLICT TIMBER: English version

K. Canby. Chinese translation by X. Sun - October 2006
Environmental Aspects of China's Papermaking Fiber Supply

Environmental Aspects of China's Papermaking Fiber Supply

Brian Stafford - Brian Stafford & Associates Pty Ltd:, Forest Trends - July 2007

In recent years, China's expanding pulp and paper sector has become a major influence on the global forests and forest product markets. Since 1990, China has accounted for over 50 per cent the world's overall growth in paper and paperboard production. To meet growing domestic demand, the government is promoting a new industry based on large, high-tech mills which process wood pulp into paper. This study employs trade data to outline...

Forest Products Trade Between Russia & China

Forest Products Trade Between Russia & China

Potential Production, Processing, Consumption and Trade Scenarios

Steven Northway , Gary Q. Bull - University of British Columbia (UBC), Forest Trends, Rights & Resources Initiative (RRI) - July 2007

This synthesis report depicts future trends in forest products processing, consumption and trade between China and its main suppliers, with a particular focus on Siberia and the Russian Far East. It is based on the findings of the International Forest and Forest Products (IFFP) trade model analysis completed by Northway & Bull 2007. The first part of the analysis examines a status quo scenario for forest products supply, processing,...

Russian Logs in China

Russian Logs in China

The Softwood Commodity Chain & Chinese Economic Development

Song Weiming, Cheng Baodong, Zhang Shengdong , Meng Xianggang - Forest Trends, DFID, SIDA, Beijing Forestry University, Rights and Resources Initiative - March 2007

This paper provides an overview of the commodity-chain process of Russian softwood logs once they enter China, focusing on softwood as the dominant forest products traded from Russia to China. The research then details the economic and social impacts of this trade on local Chinese economies and livelihoods....

Eve of destruction the environment

Eve of destruction the environment

- Canberry Times - March 2006

Papua New Guinea's ancient, species-rich rainforest wilderness is being rapidly destroyed by widespread illegal logging, carried out by corrupt foreign timber companies that are abusing the basic rights of workers....

China and the Global Market for Forest Products

China and the Global Market for Forest Products

Transforming Trade to Benefit Forests and Livelihoods

Andy White, Xiufang Sun, Kerstin Canby, Jintao Xu, Christopher Barr, Eugenia Katsigris, Gary Bull, Christian Cossalter, Sten Nilsson - Forest Trends, Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, CIFOR - March 2006

China's spectacular economic growth over the last decade is having a dramatic impact throughout the world. It has become a leading nation in terms of its demand for forest products, and its influence is being felt as far afield as Cameroon and Cambodia, Indonesia and the United States. China is now in the world’s spotlight, with governments, industry and development agencies eager to learn more about the global impact the country...

Logging, Legality and Livelihoods in Papua New Guinea

Logging, Legality and Livelihoods in Papua New Guinea

Sythesis of Official Assessments of the Large-Scale Logging Industry Volume I

- Forest Trends - March 2006

Between 2000 and 2005, in response to a widely held view that forest management in Papua New Guinea was not providing long-term benefits to the country or its citizens, and to assess the implementation and effectiveness of the new governance regime introduced in the PNG Forestry Act of 1991, the Papua New Guinea government commissioned five separate reviews of the administration and practice of the logging industry. This report,...

Strengthening Forest Management in Indonesia through Land Tenure Reform

Strengthening Forest Management in Indonesia through Land Tenure Reform

Issues and Framework for Action

Dr. Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla , Chip Fay - Forest Trends, World Agroforestry Center, MFP, Rights & Resources, IHSA, Greenomics Indonesia, The World Bank, DFID, Ford Foundation - March 2006

In Indonesia, as in many developing countries, the government is struggling to improve the management of their dwindling forest resources. Despite government efforts, Indonesia still has large tracts of primary and secondary forest ecosystems that are under intense threat from both industry and local people....

Opportunities and Constraints to Investment

Opportunities and Constraints to Investment

Natural Tropical Forest Industries

Kerstin Canby , Cary Raditz - Forest Trends - January 2006

The global forest products industry represents close to 3% of the world's gross economic output, and the forests upon which it depends are particularly important ecosystems for the health of the planet and for human well-being. The size of the industry, its links to the rest-of-the-world economy, and the centrality of its resource base to environmental sustainability make it an industry subject to intense controversy and growing public...

Logging, Legality and Livelihoods in Papua New Guinea

Logging, Legality and Livelihoods in Papua New Guinea

Synthesis of Official Assessments of the Large-Scale Logging Industry Volume II

- Forest Trends - January 2006

Between 2000 and 2005, in response to a widely held view that forest management in Papua New Guinea was not providing long-term benefits to the country or its citizens, and to assess the implementation and effectiveness of the new governance regime introduced in the PNG Forestry Act of 1991, the Papua New Guinea government commissioned five separate reviews of the administration and practice of the logging industry. This report,...

Developing Future Ecosystem Service Payments In China

Developing Future Ecosystem Service Payments In China

Lessons Learned from International Experience

Sara J. Scherr, Michael T. Bennett, Molly Loughney, Kerstin Canby - Ecoagriculture Partners, Peking University College of Environmental Sciences, Forest Trends - 2006

Across the world, the growing scarcity of ecosystem services has led to a flurry of conservation innovations over the past decade in the form of payment schemes and nascent markets for these services. The global economic value of ecosystem services is estimated in the trillions of dollars, though actual payments for protecting these services are developing unevenly around the globe. The most developed markets and payment systems are...

Scales of benthic–pelagic coupling and the intensity of species interactions: From recruitment limitation to top-down control

Scales of benthic–pelagic coupling and the intensity of species interactions: From recruitment limitation to top-down control

Sergio A. Navarrete, Evie A. Wieters, Bernardo R. Broitman, Juan Carlos Castilla - December 2005

...

Rights and Resources Initiative

Rights and Resources Initiative

A New Global Initiative Advancing Forest Tenure, Policy and Market Reforms to Reduce Rural Poverty, Strengthen Forest Gove

Many communities are asserting their rights to manage their forests, and some governments and private sector leaders are introducing substantive changes to forest tenure, policies and markets. The forest sector is now undergoing important reforms....

Farmers cash in on green money

Farmers cash in on green money

Gerald Tenywa - The New Vision - October 2005

UGANDAN farmers are earning millions of shillings from western companies for maintaining and planting new forests to compensate for carbon emissions into the atmosphere by western factories....

Market Options and Barriers for Timber and Sawnwood from Michoacán, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Campeche and Quinatana Roo, Mexico

Market Options and Barriers for Timber and Sawnwood from Michoacán, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Campeche and Quinatana Roo, Mexico

René A. Forster, H. Alfonso Argüelles, Nicolás Aguilar , Stefanie Katz - TRL, PROCYMAF, Universidad de Quintana Roo, CONAFOR, Forest Trends - September 2005

This study is one of several country-level market assessments that analyze the scope of opportunities for community forest enterprises to participate effectively in forest sector markets. As part of its global analytical program, Forest Trends and its international partners have identified a new forest agenda which seeks to make markets work for low-income producers and to help forest dwellers to achieve the three seemingly...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Biodiversity Offsets: A Proposition Paper

Biodiversity Offsets: A Proposition Paper

International Council on Mining and Metals - July 2005

ICMM and its member companies wish to understand more about the concept of biodiversity offsets and the practicalities of their application to consider how they could contribute to a suite of measures to improve environmental performance....

Beyond Timber

Beyond Timber

Certification of Non-Timber Forest Products

Patrica Shanley, Alan Pierce , Sarah Laird - Forest Trends, CIFOR, People and Plants International - July 2005

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are critical to rural livelihoods in both temperate and tropical areas. They provide communities with important subsistence resources like medicine, food and shelter, as well as a source of cash income. NTFPs are also part of large regional and international markets, and for centuries products such as spices, medicinal plants, fragrances and resins spurred explorations and sustained trade routes...

At the Supply Edge

At the Supply Edge

Thailand's Forest Policies, Plantation Sector, and Commodity Export Links with China

Keith Barney - York University, Forest Trends, CIFOR, YCAR, DFID, Asia Pro Eco Programme - May 2005

This study on Thailand’s forestry sector was commissioned by CIFOR and Forest Trends as part of a wider effort to address an information gap regarding Asia’s forestry and plantation forestry industries as well as regarding the emerging trade linkages between East and Southeast Asia. This report on Thailand’s forest sector is one of three studies undertaken by the author, which links forest resource production trends in Southeast Asian...

Forest Company-Community Agreements in Brazil

Forest Company-Community Agreements in Brazil

Current Status and Opportunities for Action

Natália G. Vidal - Forest Trends - March 2005

Agreements between the private forest sector and local forest communities have been increasingly recognized as a potential solution to some problems related to poverty alleviation, increasing demand for wood products and the need to increase the global forest area under sustainable forest management. Very little is known about the Brazilian experience on these types of forest company-community agreements. The few examples described in...

Forest Company-Community Agreements in Mexico

Forest Company-Community Agreements in Mexico

Identifying Succesful Models

Natália G. Vidal - Forest Trends - March 2005

Agreements between the private sector and local forest communities have been increasingly recognized as a potential solution to problems related to poverty alleviation, the increasing demand for wood products, and the need to increase the part of global forest area that is under sustainable forest management. Mexico represents one of the few countries that have the great majority of their forest resources (more than 80%) located in...

Forest Product Exports from the Russian Far East and Eastern Siberia to China

Forest Product Exports from the Russian Far East and Eastern Siberia to China

Status and Trends

Anatoly Lebedev - Bureau for Regional Outreach Campaigns, Forest Trends, CIFOR, Pacific Institute of Geography, WWF, DFID - January 2005

Since 2001, China has been a top destination of Russian forest product exports to the Asia-Pacific region. The foreign economic and trade liberalization that began in Russia in the mid-1990s - combined with the high demand for timber imports into China due to the Chinese domestic logging ban starting in 1998 - has stimulated strong Chinese trade capital in the Russian Far East forested regions , especially in border areas....

Siberian and Russian Far East Timber for China

Siberian and Russian Far East Timber for China

Legal and Illegal Pathways, Players and Trends

Anatoly Lebedev - Bureau for Regional Outreach Campaigns, Forest Trends, CIFOR, DFID - January 2005

The preservation and sustainable use of Siberian and Russian Far East (RFE) forests is of global importance for a number of reasons. These forests, which are the traditional environments of many endangered species and indigenous tribes, are now supplying timber to nearby regions and countries that have largely destroyed their own forests. The vast forests of Asian Russia act as reservoirs for one-seventh of the global carbon pool....

Forest Certification and Small Forest Enterprises

Forest Certification and Small Forest Enterprises

Key Trends and Impacts - Benefits and Barriers

Rebecca Butterfield, Eric Hansen, Richard Fletcher, and Hanna Nikinmaa - Rainforest Alliance, Oregon State University, Oregon State University Extension, Savcor, Forest Trends - January 2005

As certification of forest management practices enters its second decade, questions have been raised regarding the impacts of forest certification and its future trajectory. While many of the concerns that led to the development of forest certification initially were focused on environmental issues, subsequent issues have emerged related to the social and economic impacts of forest certification. Among these are: concerns of...

Central Plans and Global Exports

Central Plans and Global Exports

Tracking Vietnam's Forestry Commodity Chains and Export Links to China

Keith Barney - York University, Forest Trends, CIFOR, YCAR, DFID, Asia Pro Eco Programme - January 2005

After suffering forest cover declines of 185,000 ha per year from 1976 until 1990, Vietnam is attempting to stabilize deforestation trends, restructure the forest industry and the land tenure system, and move aggressively into fast-growing plantations. Reforestation of degraded forest land, natural regeneration of logged forest areas and more effective forest protection are key components of the Five Million Hectare Reforestation Plan...

A Brief Overview of China's Timber Market

A Brief Overview of China's Timber Market

Xiufang Sun, Liqun Wang, Zhenbin Gu - Forest Trends, School of Economics and Management at Beijing Forestry University, Chinese Center for Agricultural Policy, CIFOR, CEM, Beijing Forestry University - January 2005

China’s timber market has undergone dramatic changes in recent decades and continues to change rapidly. Currently, timber producers are allowed to market their timber directly to different buyers, although timber harvest and transport remain heavily regulated by the government. China’s primary wood-processing industry and wood-consuming sectors have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Sectors like sawnwood or plywood...

Customs, Concessionaires and Conflict

Customs, Concessionaires and Conflict

Tracking Cambodia's Forestry Commodity Chains and Export Links to China

Keith Barney - YCAR, Forest Trends, CIFOR, DIFID, Asia Pro Eco Programme - January 2005

Cambodia has obviously experienced some difficulty in implementing an effective framework of sustainable forest management. Indeed, the Cambodian forest sector can be considered a paradigmatic example of the close links between vast resource wealth on the one hand, and structural conflict and rural violence on the other. From the early to the mid-1990s, Cambodia's illegal logging sector was a primary source of military financing for...

An Overview of the Market Chain for China's Timber Product Imports from Myanmar

An Overview of the Market Chain for China's Timber Product Imports from Myanmar

Fredrich Kahrl, Horst Weyerhaeuser, and Su Yufang - World Agroforestry Centre, Forest Trends - January 2005

China's annual timber product imports from Myanmar more than tripled between 1997 and 2002. Although imports from Myanmar comprise just over two percent of China's total timber product imports, the nascent increase in logging activities along the Chinese border in Myanmar has been highly concentrated in natural forests in Myanmar's northern Kachin State, and the ecological impacts of these activities are not captured in timber product...

China's Forest Product Exports

China's Forest Product Exports

An Overview of Trends by Segment and Destinations

Xiufang Sun, Nian Cheng, Kerstin Canby - Forest Trends, Chinese Center for Agricultural Policy, Center for International Forestry Research - January 2005

In only 7 years, China's timber product exports have tripled in volume and increased fourfold in value. The total volume of all forest product exports - including both timber and pulp and paper products - is now one-third of China's total forest product import volume. The total volume of only primary timber products (excluding pulp and paper) exports is now more than two-thirds of China's timber product imports by RWE volume. It is...

Forestry in China

Forestry in China

Policy, Consumption, and Production in Forestry's Newest Superpower

Jintao Xu, Andy White, Gary Bull, Sten Nilsson, eds. - Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Forest Trends, University of British Columbia, IIASA - December 2004

China's forest market is one of the largest in the world in terms of production, consumption, and imports of wood products. Its large forest estate and massive population has meant that it has also for some time been a leading nation in terms of the number of processing plants, number of people employed in the forestry sector, the scope of its non-timber forest markets, and the overall level of contributions of forest enterprises and...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Understanding the Chinese Forest Market and Its Global Implications

Understanding the Chinese Forest Market and Its Global Implications

Jintao Xu , A. White - Chinese Agricultural Policy, Forest Trends - January 2004
The China Forest Products Trade

The China Forest Products Trade: Overview of Asia-Pacific Supplying Countries, Impacts and Implications

Eugenia Katsigris, Gary Bull, Andy White, Chris Barr, Keith Barney, Yati Bun, Timothy King, Alexey Lankin, Anatoly Lebedev, Phil Shearman, Alexander Sheingauz, Fredrich Kahrl, Yufang Su, Horst Weyerhaeuser - Forest Trends, University of British Columbia, Center for International Forestry Research, York University, Foundation for People and Community Development, Forest Information Systems, Far Eastern Ecoregional Project, Worldwide Fund for Nature, Bureau for Regional Oriental Campaigns, University of Papua New Guinea, Economic Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences - March 2007
China's Collective Forestlands

China's Collective Forestlands: Contributions and Constraints

Guangping Miao , R. Anders West - FEDRC, Forest Trends - January 2006
An Assessment of China's Forest Resources

An Assessment of China's Forest Resources

Gary Bull , Sten Nilsson - University of British Columbia, IIASA, Forest Trends - January 2004
China's Pulp and Paper Sector

China's Pulp and Paper Sector: An Analysis of Supply-Demand Trends and Medium-Term Projections

Dequan He , Chris Barr - China Economic Consulting, Inc, CIFOR, Forest Trends - January 2004
China's Development of a Plantation-based Wood Pulp Industry

China's Development of a Plantation-based Wood Pulp Industry: Government Policies, Financial Incentives, and Investment Trends

Chris Barr , Christian Cossalter - World Agroforestry Centre, CIFOR, Forest Trends - January 2004
China's Forest Sector Markets

China's Forest Sector Markets: Policy Issues and Recommendations

Sten Nilsson, Gary Bull, Andy White, Jintao Xu - IIASA, University of British Columbia, Forest Trends, CCAP - January 2004
Ecosystems for Sale in an Unequal World

Ecosystems for Sale in an Unequal World

...

Payment Where It's Due

Payment Where It's Due

Michael Jenkins, Sara Scherr, and Mira Inbar - Forest Trends - November 2004

The financing and management of natural protected areas has historically been seen as the responsibility of the public sector. However, budgets for government protection and management of forest ecosystem services are declining, as are those from overseas development assistance. At the same time, processes of devolution and decentralization are shifting public responsibility for nature protection, and new sources of financing for...

Making Environmental Markets Work

Making Environmental Markets Work

Lessons from Early Experience with Sulphur, Carbon, Wetlands, and Other Related Markets

Ricardo Bayon - Forest Trends - August 2004

Ever since the passage of the 1990 amendments to the US Clean Air act and the creation of a market in sulfur dioxide (SO2), it has become clear that market mechanisms can be effectively used to achieve environmental policies. But markets are neither infallible nor automatic. They have blind spots and they need to be designed effectively, if they are to effectively achieve environmental ends. This paper defines markets as regular...

For Services Rendered

For Services Rendered

The Current Status and Future Potential of Markets for the Ecosystem Services Provided by Tropical Forests

Sara Scherr, Andy White, Arvind Khare - Forest Trends - July 2004

The past decade has seen the widespread emergence of markets and other payment schemes for forest ecosystem services - such as watershed protection, biodiversity protection and carbon sequestration -around the world. At a global scale, several recent reviews indicate that these activities are nascent and still limited in scope and scale, but that they may have potential to be scaled up to regional, river-basin or national levels with...

Forest Governance in Federal Systems

Forest Governance in Federal Systems

An Overview of Experiences and Implications for Decentralization

Hans Gregersen, Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Andy White, Lauren Phillips - CGIAR, Forest Trends, United Nations Forum on Forests, CIFOR - April 2004

Internationally recognized problems such as illegal logging and uncontrolled deforestation, as well as the broader political trends, are driving many countries to reconsider centralized systems of decision-making and direct government implementation of forest programs. The paper assesses the experiences of eight countries with federal systems including Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Malaysia, Nigeria, Russia, and the United States...

Markets for Biodiversity Services

Markets for Biodiversity Services

Potential Roles and Challenges

Michael Jenkins, Sara J. Scherr, and Mira Inbar - Forest Trends - April 2004

In recent decades, several factors have stimulated those concerned with biodiversity conservation services to begin exploring new market-based instruments. The model of public finance for forest and biodiversity conservation is facing a crisis as the main sources of finance have stagnated, despite the recognition that much larger areas require protection....

Who Owns, Who Conserves and Why It Matters

Who Owns, Who Conserves and Why It Matters

Andy White, Augusta Molnar, Arvind Khare - Forest Trends - March 2004

When thinking about forest tenure and conservation, it is important to recall that there are somewhere between 1 and 1.5 billion of the world's poorest people living in and around forests. Recent studies indicate that about 80 per cent of the extreme poor - those living on less than one dollar a day - depend on forest resources for their livelihoods. As forests are the key assets for these peoples, security of forest resource rights is...

Certification in Complex Socio-Political Settings

Certification in Complex Socio-Political Settings

Looking forward to the Next Decade

Michael Richards - Forest Trends - February 2004

There is little evidence of certification's impact on checking illegal logging, corruption and other severe forest governance problems. This is not surprising since these problems derive from problems in the legal, regulatory and policy framework, and public respect for law and order - problems unlikely to be much affected by a market instrument (with a small market) like certification....

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Annex 1: La Experiencia Boliviana en la Certificación Forestal

Annex 1: La Experiencia Boliviana en la Certificación Forestal

Henry Moreno Sanjines - Forest Trends - February 2004
Annex 2: Brazil Forest Certification Case Study

Annex 2: Brazil Forest Certification Case Study

Andre de Freitas - IMAFLORA, Forest Trends - February 2004
Annex 3: West and Central Africa

Annex 3: West and Central Africa: Progress and Prospects for Forest Certification

Mike Packer - Timbmet Group, Forest Trends - February 2004
Annex 4: Forest Certification in Indonesia

Annex 4: Forest Certification in Indonesia

Marcus Colchester - Forest Peoples Programme, Forest Trends - February 2004
Annex 5: Forest Certification in Malaysia

Annex 5: Forest Certification in Malaysia

Saskia Ozinga - Forest Trends - February 2004
Annex 6: The Experience of the Russian Producers' Group

Annex 6: The Experience of the Russian Producers' Group

Andrey Ptichnikov - Forest Trends - February 2004
Annex 7: Priluzye Model Forest Certification Case

Annex 7: Priluzye Model Forest Certification Case

Mikhail Karpachevskiy - Forest Trends - February 2004
China Softwood-Log Commodity Chain and Livelihood Analysis

China Softwood-Log Commodity Chain and Livelihood Analysis

From the Russian Far East to China

Alexander Sheingauz, Anatoly Lebedev , Natalia Ye Antonova - Economic Research Institutental Campaigns, Bureau for Regional Oriental Campaigns, Forest Trends, CIFOR, DFID - January 2004

China has rapidly become one of the world's largest importers of wood. The volumes of logs, sawn wood, wood panels, and pulp and paper products shipped to China by producer countries in Southeast Asia, the Russian Far East (RFE), Siberia and other regions have grown especially sharply since China implemented a partial ban on logging in 1998. China's growing demand for wood products is driving deforestation and illegal logging...

Overview of the Forest Sector in the Russian Far East

Overview of the Forest Sector in the Russian Far East

Production, Industry and the Problem of Illegal Logging

Alexander Sheingauz - Economic Research Institute, Forest Trends, DFID, CIFOR - January 2004

Russia and China have been bound by long-standing ties since the middle of the 17th century, with mutual trade as an important aspect. It is natural that regions such as the Russian Far East (RFE) and Southeastern Siberia developed firm links with China, because they are the closest neighbors. These relations, particularly in the timber trade, became even stronger (with some fluctuations) following World War II....

Forest Certification and Governments

Forest Certification and Governments

The Real and Potential Influence on Regulatory Frameworks and Forest Policies

Gerardo Segura - Forest Trends - January 2004

This paper is one of a series of reviews that cover critical challenges for the continued growth of certification to impact sustainable forestry around the globe. Each chapter attempts to gather as many cases as possible and to include a large and broad number of contributors. The chapters are meant to inform the forest community and enrich the certification systems as they look forward into the next decade....

Navigating the Border

Navigating the Border

An Analysis of the China-Myanmar Timber Trade

Fredrich Kahrl, Horst Weyerhaeuser, Su Yufang - World Agroforestry Centre, Forest Trends - January 2004

In addition to socio-economic pressures, the combination of insufficient regulation in China and political instability in northern Myanmar has exacted a high ecological price. The uncertain regulatory and contractual environment has oriented the border logging industry toward short-term harvesting and profits, rather than investments in longer-term timber production. Degradation in Myanmar's border forests will have an impact on...

China's Impact on Papua New Guinea's Forestry Industry

China's Impact on Papua New Guinea's Forestry Industry

Yati Bun, Timothy King, Phil Shearman - Foundation for People and Community Development, Forest Information Services , University of Papua New Guinea Remote Sensing Centre, Forest Trends, CIFOR, DFID - January 2004

The harvesting and export of timber forms an important part of the Papua New Guinea national economy, and China is one of its most significant trading partners. China is the principal market for round logs from Papua New Guinea; it imported over one million cubic meters of logs from PNG in 2002. China’s imports of sawn timber and veneer from Papua New Guinea are currently insubstantial, and China does not currently import wood chips or...

Meeting China's Demand for Forest Products

Meeting China's Demand for Forest Products

An Overview of Import Trends, Ports of Entry, and Supplying Countries, with Emphasis on the Asia-Pacific Region

Xiufang Sun, Eugenia Katsigiris, and Andy White - Forest Trends - January 2004

This paper provides a brief overview of forest product import trends in both product segment and port of entry, as well as for each of the main Asia-Pacific producer countries supplying China. The paper first describes the overall import trends and then trends by product segment. It next addresses trends in the various ports of entry and identifies major supplier countries. The paper then describes the roles of eight leading Asia...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

China's Forest Product Import Trends 1997-2002

China's Forest Product Import Trends 1997-2002

Analysis of Customs Data with Emphasis on Asia-Pacific Supplying Countries

Xiufang Sun, Nian Cheng, Andy White, R. Anders West , Eugenia Katsigiris - Forest Trends, Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy - January 2004

China plays a major, and growing, role in the global forest products market today. The largest importer of industrial roundwood in the world since 2001, China is now second only to the United States in total imports of forest products, rising from seventh in less than ten years. In recent years, over 40 percent of total commercial timber consumed domestically in China has been imported. This rapid increase in imports has been driven by...

A New Agenda for Forest Conservation and Poverty Reduction

A New Agenda for Forest Conservation and Poverty Reduction

Making Markets Work for Low-Income Producers

Sara J. Scherr, Andy White, David Kaimowitz - Forest Trends - 2004

The future of the world's forests and the future of millions of the world's poorest people are inextricably linked. Rural poverty is concentrated in many areas where the world's biodiversity is most threatened. More than a billion people now live within the world's 19 forest biodiversity "hotspots" and population growth in the world's tropical wilderness areas is 3.1 percent, over twice the world's average rate of growth. Over 90...

Who Conserves the World's Forests? A New Assessment of Conservation and Investment Trends

Who Conserves the World's Forests? A New Assessment of Conservation and Investment Trends

Augusta Molnar, Sara J. Scherr, Arvind Khare - Forest Trends, Ecoagriculture Partners - 2004

The current system of protected areas continues to be severely under-funded while not including enough of the world's priority biodiversity and natural habitats. At the present coverage and quality of protection, biologists estimate that only 50-70% of the existing species will be conserved. It is the thesis of this paper that current proposals for expanding protected areas in many developing countries continue to be made without...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Who Conserves the World's Forests? Community-Driven Strategies to Protect Forests and Respect Rights (Policy Brief)

Who Conserves the World's Forests? Community-Driven Strategies to Protect Forests and Respect Rights (Policy Brief)

Augusta Molnar, Sara J. Scherr, Arvind Khare - Forest Trends, Ecoagriculture Partners - 2004
An Assessment of Indigenous Participation in Commercial Forestry Markets

An Assessment of Indigenous Participation in Commercial Forestry Markets

The Case of Nicaragua's Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region

J. Montgomery Roper, Ph.D - Forest Trends - December 2003

Nicaragua's Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) contains a wealth of tropical forests and has a long history of forest exploitation. Nicaragua contains the largest tropical forest north of Amazonia with nearly 23,000 km2 of broadleaf and nearly 6,000 km2 of pine forest. Over three quarters of these forests are located in the Northern Atlantic Autonomous region, which constitutes about one-quarter of the country in total area....

Forest Certification and Communities

Forest Certification and Communities

Looking Forward to the Next Decade

Augusta Molnar et al. - Forest Trends - March 2003

This review looks at the experience with communities and certification as the first in a series of systematic reviews of certification. The analysis includes an assessment of community experiences with certification to date, an evaluation of the range of direct and indirect impacts on communities in different geographic regions, and an examination of the strategic issues that certification will likely face in the future, suggesting...

Dependent Documents Associated with this Publication

Annex 1: Forest Certification in Brazil

Annex 1: Forest Certification in Brazil: The Parallel Evolution of Community Forest Management in the Brazilian Amazon and FSC Certification

Tasso Rezende de Azevedo and André Giacini de Freitas - IMAFLORA, Forest Trends - April 2003
Annex 3: Forest Certification in Mexico

Annex 3: Forest Certification in Mexico: Certification in Mexico: The Cases of Durango and Oaxaca

Sergio Madrid, Francisco Chapela - CCMSS, ERA, Forest Trends - April 2003
To Johannesburg and Beyond

To Johannesburg and Beyond

Strategic Options to Advance the Conservation of Natural Forests

Andy White, Augusta Molnar, and Sara Scherr - Forest Trends - March 2002

As global concern for continuing deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries grows in intensity, there is also disenchantment - even weariness - with global agreements and international initiatives to address these issues. While they are broadly appreciated for raising awareness - the energy and effort that go into global institutions has not been matched by effective action and impact on the ground....

Forest Carbon and Local Livelihoods

Forest Carbon and Local Livelihoods

Assessments of Opportunities and Policy Recommendations

Joyotee Smith, and Sara Scherr - CIFOR, Forest Trends, DIFD, GTZ, The Rockefeller Foundation, USAID, Future Harvest, CGIAR - January 2002

This paper brings together insights from emerging forestry and conservation paradigms and investigates their relevance for the debate on the social impact of CDM forestry. ...

A Place in the World

A Place in the World

Tenure Security and Community Livelihoods

Lynn Ellsworth - Forest Trends - January 2002

This paper provides a literature overview and analysis, paying special attention to arguments about what tenure security is and how it is related to the goal of helping communities build assets and improve their livelihoods, especially communities living in and around natural forests....

Social, Environmental and Economic Dimensions of Forest Policy Reform in Bolivia

Social, Environmental and Economic Dimensions of Forest Policy Reform in Bolivia

Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Maria Teresa Vargas Rios - Forest Trends, CIFOR - January 2002

Bolivian forests cover some 53 million hectares - or almost half of the total area of the country - mainly in the departments of Santa Cruz, Beni, La Paz, Pando and Cochabamba. During the last decade or so, there was a growing concern that the nation's forests were increasingly under threat and that there was a need to utilize them more efficiently in order to promote economic and social conditions that were compatible with...

Developing Markets for the Ecosystem Services of Forests

Developing Markets for the Ecosystem Services of Forests

Ian Powell, Andy White, and Natasha Landell-Mills - Forest Trends - January 2002

As human demands increase and natural resources become scarcer, those who bear the costs of degradation - such as downstream water utilities, local governments, private insurers and society as a whole - are exploring opportunities to reduce costs by financing forest conservation. At the same time, some forest owners are seeking compensation for the costs of maintaining healthy forests. Interest in reducing costs, increasing incomes and...

Making Markets Work for Forest Communities

Making Markets Work for Forest Communities

Sara J. Scherr, Andy White, and David Kaimowitz - Forest Trends - January 2002

Development assistance efforts in recent years have focused on forests as "safety nets" for low-income forest dwellers. These efforts emphasize access to forest resources for the poor to meet their subsistence needs. But much less has been done to help local people exploit their forest assets in a sustainable manner to take advantage of the opportunities (and to cope with the pressures) of growing demand for forest products....

Strategies for Strengthening Community Property Rights Over Forests

Strategies for Strengthening Community Property Rights Over Forests

Lessons and Opportunities for Practitioners

Andy White, and Alejandra Martin - Forest Trends - January 2002

Tenure security has recently become a central concern of poverty, forest conservation and human rights advocates alike. Poverty experts now recognize that the world's poor are disproportionately located in rural areas and strongly dependent upon forest resources for their survival. Recent studies indicate that about 80 percent of the extreme poor, those living on less than one dollar a day, depend on forest resources for their...

Who Owns the World's Forests? Forest Tenure and Public Forests in Transition

Who Owns the World's Forests? Forest Tenure and Public Forests in Transition

Andy White, and Alejandra Martin - Forest Trends - January 2002

Since the late 1980s, some governments of major forested countries have begun to reconsider and reform forest ownership policies. These transitions are driven by three primary considerations. First, governments are increasingly aware that official forest tenure systems in many countries discriminate against the rights and claims of indigenous people and other local communities. Although the data are incomplete, it is estimated that...

Illegal Forest Activities in the Asia Pacific Rim

Illegal Forest Activities in the Asia Pacific Rim

Arnoldo Contreras Hermosilla - Forest Trends - September 2001

Illegal forest activities within the Asia Pacific countries have generated a host of negative impacts on the economy, the poor, and the quality of forest management. It is in the interest of all of the stakeholders - from local communities to national politicians to logging companies to international donors - to work together to ensure the preservation of Asia Pacific Rim forests by identifying and implementing an agreed upon and...

Case Studies of Markets and Innovative Financial Mechanisms for Water Services from Forests

Case Studies of Markets and Innovative Financial Mechanisms for Water Services from Forests

Danièle Perrot-Maître, Patsy Davis - Forest Trends - May 2001

This paper examines existing market and financial mechanisms that are being used to provide hydrological services from watersheds and to assist forest owners and policymakers in assessing the advisability and feasibility of using such mechanisms....

Developing Markets for Water Services from Forests

Developing Markets for Water Services from Forests

Issues and Lessons for Innovators

Nels Johnson, Andy White, and Danièle Perrot-Maîtrele - World Resources Institute, Forest Trends - January 2001

Of the many services that forests provide, hydrological services, such as water quality and water flow, are among the most valuable. As we look ahead into the next decade, water will become an increasingly critical issue as it becomes an increasingly scarce resource. The value of these hydrological services will only grow over time. Policy makers, forest landowners, and investors in downstream utilities are recognizing the financial...

Pacific Rim Initiative

Pacific Rim Initiative

A Coordinated Plan for Advancing Sustainable Forestry in the Pacific Rim

- Forest Trends, WWF, Chinese Research Center for Ecological and Environmental Economics - December 2000

The forests of the Pacific Rim are critically important, in both global and local terms, are seriously threatened, and thus merit priority attention from conservationists, governments and private industry. Overall, policy and market failures, inappropriate government subsidies, non-discriminating investments and demand, illegal logging and trade, have all driven over-exploitation and inefficiency in the production and use of wood...

Carbon Forestry Projects in Developing Countries

Carbon Forestry Projects in Developing Countries

Legal Issues and Tools

Patsy Davis - Forest Trends - April 2000

Increasing awareness of the need for action on global warming has produced a search for ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to sequester carbon to offset such emissions. At the present time, nations around the globe are hotly debating whether to put into force the Kyoto Protocol. To comply with such climate controls, industrialized countries will need to develop systems to control their own domestic emissions. Domestic...

Risk Mitigation in Forestry

Risk Mitigation in Forestry

Linkages with Kyoto and Sustainable Forestry Management

Charles Eyre, Justin Mundy, ARM - Forest Trends - October 1999

This paper aims to illustrate some of the new influences which are affecting the forestry sector globally; it also highlights some of the opportunities and constraints which are becoming apparent. The report focuses on the role of forestry within the climate change debate. This has been done for two reasons; first, because the sector plays a vital role in ensuring that the predicted range of climate change is modified; and, second,...

Capital Markets and Sustainable Forestry

Capital Markets and Sustainable Forestry

Opportunities for Investment

Constance Best , Michael Jenkins - The Pacific Forest Trust, Forest Trends - June 1999

In this report, we frame the differences in the business models of conventional forestry and sustainable forestry. We cover the sustainable forestry sector "from the forest to the floor", along its value chain of business enterprises. We consider the varying situation in tropical, temperate and, to some degree, boreal forests. We endeavor to give a global perspective, while grounding the report in specific examples of business...

Getting It Right

Getting It Right

Emerging Markets for Storing Carbon in Forests

Michael Totten - World Resources Institute, Forest Trends - January 1999

Forests offer one of the most cost-effective opportunities for storing or sequestering carbon. This report is directly relevant to companies in any industry - not just forest products. Indeed, there are clear co-benefits to be gained from companies interested in carbon offsets, and forestland managers and conservationists in temperate and tropical settings in need of financial support....

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